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Graduate Studies Catalog (1999-2001)


Department of Public Administration
(716) 395-2375

For the most current policies, please go to the Department of Public Administration's 
home page at http://cc.brockport.edu/~pubadmin/index.html




Chairperson and Associate Professor: Ann S. Altmeyer, Ph.D., Syracuse University. Professor: John Phillips, Ph.D., Ohio State University. Associate Professors: Edward H. Downey, DPA, SUNY Albany; Richard D. Evans, Ph.D., Syracuse University; James Fatula, Ph.D., Fordham University; Robert Guhde, Ph.D., Kent State University. Assistant Professors: Faith Prather, Ph.D., SUNY Buffalo; Wendy J. Wright, Ph.D., SUNY Binghamton.

Public administration is a program of graduate professional study for the Master of Public Administration (MPA) degree. The program develops competencies in administration, management, and policy analysis for public, nonprofit and private service organizations. Students acquire basic knowledge and skills through the program's core courses, while individual career objectives are met through one of three emphases--general, health care management, and information management. Within the general emphasis, students find the opportunity to specialize in areas such as recreation and leisure, public safety and security, and nonprofit management. To receive the MPA, students complete 42-48 credits of graduate course work, an internship (if applicable), and an applied research paper (portfolio or project paper). Original papers become the property of the Department of Public Administration. Students are advised to always retain a copy of their submitted work.

Courses are generally three credits, meeting once a week for a semester; occasionally other options are offered including distance learning and Internet offerings. Most classes are offered in the evening at the SUNY Brockport MetroCenter in downtown Rochester. Some are offered at the Brockport campus.

Admission Requirements
Eligibility to apply to the MPA program requires a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college or university and evidence of potential to succeed at graduate study. Conditional admittance status is an option. The Department of Public Administration requires matriculation prior to or during the first six credit hours of course work (two PAD courses). You must submit your application for matriculation to the Graduate Admissions Office by March 1, July 1, or October 1 as appropriate. More information regarding this process may be obtained from the department.

To apply for admission, an applicant must submit the following information to:
Office of Graduate Admissions
SUNY College at Brockport
350 New Campus Drive
Brockport, New York 14420-2915

 1. student materials form;

 2. an application form;

 3. official transcripts of undergraduate and prior graduate work (except for SUNY Brockport);

 4. three letters of recommendation from persons in a position to assess the applicant's potential for significant academic or administrative achievements (e.g., professors, supervisors, business colleagues); and

5. resume (only if you are to be considered inservice).

To meet department standards, the above requirements must reflect the ability to do graduate work. Those who wish to be considered "inservice" should include with their admission application a résumé' which details past organizational responsibilities and achievements (including position titles and organizations, beginning and ending dates, and any staff supervised). Please see degree requirements regarding inservice students.

Any undergraduate major course of study provides acceptable preparation for the study of public administration. Students will find courses in business, computer science, political science, health sciences, economics, sociology, and psychology particularly useful.

The faculty reserves the right to deny admission even when minimum requirements are met.

Master of Public Administration
General Emphasis in Public Administration
Core Courses (24 credits):
PAD 680 Public Policy (must be taken within the first 12 credits of study)
PAD 681 Organizational Management
PAD 682 Organizational Behavior
PAD 683 Intergovernmental Relations (prerequisite: PAD 680)
PAD 684 Budget-State and Local Government
PAD 685 Human Resource Management
PAD 687 Statistics for Managers
PAD 688 Research and Program Evaluation (prerequisite: PAD 687)

 Internship and Project Paper (6 to 9 credits):
PAD 692 Internship: General, 3 credits
PAD 693 Internship: General, 6 credits
PAD 696 Project Paper Seminar: General Electives (12 to 15 credits):
Electives must be approved by your faculty advisor.

 Health Care Management Emphasis
Core Courses (24 credits):
PAD 613 Health Care in America (must be taken within the first 12 credits of study)
PAD 619 Financial Administration of Health Care
PAD 681 Organizational Management
PAD 682 Organizational Behavior
PAD 686 Budget-Health
PAD 685 Human Resource Management
PAD 687 Statistics for Managers
PAD 688 Research and Program Evaluation (prerequisite: PAD 687)

 Internship and Project Paper (6 to 9 credits):
PAD 690 Internship: Health, 3 credits
PAD 691 Internship: Health, 6 credits
PAD 698 Project Paper Seminar: Health Electives (15 to 18 credits):
Electives must be approved by your faculty advisor.

 Information Management Systems Emphasis
Core Courses (24 credits):
PAD 620 Management Information Systems
PAD 666 Computer Applications
(must be taken within the first 12 credits of study)
PAD 681 Organizational Management
PAD 682 Organizational Behavior
PAD 684 Budget-State and Local Government
PAD 685 Human Resource Management
PAD 687 Statistics for Managers
PAD 688 Research and Program Evaluation (prerequisite: PAD 687)

 Internship and Project Paper (6 to 9 credits):
PAD 694 Internship: IMS, 3 credits
PAD 695 Internship: IMS, 6 credits
PAD 697 Project Paper Seminar: Information Management

 Electives (12 to 15 credits):
Electives must be approved by the information management coordinator, Dr. Robert Guhde. Requires five courses with primary computer content.

Degree Requirements
To receive the MPA degree, students must fulfill the following requirements within a seven-year period from the time of matriculation into the program. Extensions are available with extenuating circumstances upon request.

 1. Complete the specific number of credits required, dependent upon whether an individual is "inservice" or "preservice," which is determined at admission. Inservice status requires a minimum of two y ears of experience in either administrative, managerial or professional (requiring specific professional education at the baccalaureate level) work in an organizational context. These students require 42 credits to graduate. Preservice students require 48 credits, which include a full internship (six credits) and an additional elective.

2. Demonstrate computer proficiency.

3. Attain a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 ("B"). Failure to maintain adequate progress* will result in dismissal from the program. More than three credits of core below "B" will result in dematriculation. Core courses may not be repeated. An "E" in the core will result in dematriculation.

4. Complete an internship, unless waived. Internship waivers are granted to students who have significant professional experience as defined by the faculty by submitting letters of request and résumé'. Students for whom the internship employment requirement is waived may enroll for the internship course and receive experiential credit by completing a ten-page analytical paper, or they may take an additional elective.

5. Complete an applied research paper (project paper) or develop a student portfolio, based on either the internship experience or some other administrative or policy issue.

*Adequate progress refers to the relationship between GPA and credits earned: 6 credits=2.00 GPA; 12 credits=2.50 GPA; 21 credits=2.75 GPA; 30+ credits=3.00 GPA.

Public Administration Courses

PAD 613 Health Care in America. Studies the American health care system, including its organization, politics, economics, and delivery system. Surveys the characteristics of America's health system in relationship to other industrial countries; private and government proposals for financing the system; and the problems of access to care and cost containment. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 620 Management Information Systems. Provides a graduate-level introduction to systems analysis theory and systems application. Emphasizes an administrative focus on the use of systems analysis, application and the consequent development of computerized management information systems. Defines, in particular, the role and responsibilities of the manager in systems design and implementation. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 622 Legal Aspects of Public Administration. Attempts to define, analyze, and understand "law" promulgated, interpreted, and applied by institutions other than the courts. 3 Cr. Summer.

PAD 619 Financial Administration of Health Care. Helps prospective administrators in health care settings understand and use financial information in the decision-making process. Assists students/prospective administrators in developing an understanding of accounting principles and develops basic skills in financial statement analysis, managing working capital, budgeting, cost finding, and pricing. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 624 Managerial Issues in D rug U se and Abuse. Assists managers in learning about drug use and abuse and designing appropriate workplace policies. Examines issues around drug testing and legal implications of drug use in the workplace; explores model policies and appropriate community resources that may be used in treatment options. Teaches managers how to recognize substance abuse and abuse in the workplace, demonstrates how managers can effectively cope with substance use and abuse through the development and application of appropriate policies. 3 Cr. Summer.

PAD 627 Designing Integrated Office Systems. Prerequisite: PAD 665. In the course of business today, information needs to be collated, manipulated, and reported in various ways for many purposes. This information needs to be up to the minute, accurate, and easily accessible by employees, management, and customers. To that end, students in this course will create integrated Office Õ97 applications that can be used in current workplaces. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 628 The Internet and Leadership. Prerequisite: Basic familiarity with the Internet and word processing. Students participate in the development of a special Web site titled "The Virtual Leadership Center." This Web site, developed and maintained by the students and the instructor as a class project, assists anyone faced with the practical issues of leading and supervising staff. It will provide guides to relevant resources on the Internet including the Web, on-line libraries (both in the Rochester region and nation ally), newsgroups, and mailing lists. Students in the class will therefore learn the effective use of search engines, how to obtain leadership and management resources from the four sources listed, and how to "publish" their research results on the Web for other professionals to use. Finally, since "computer craftsmanship" is an increasingly important professional qualification, these skills will be enhanced by this course. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 629 Fundraising and Development. This course is designed for individuals who are currently preparing for leadership roles in this area. Students will explore the ethics and values in professional fundraising. Various forms of exchange that take place in fundraising, from individuals through corporations, will also be explored. Participants will develop skills including prospect identification, cultivation, and research. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 630 Public Safety and Security Management and Leadership. Examines the complexity of public safety and security administration in an increasingly complex society. Explores critical leadership issues such as power, status and authority in the context of current political, legal and social trends. Gives major attention to the role of the public safety/security manager as a change agent. Includes identifying and exploring new paradigms of leadership for public safety and security managers. 3 Cr.

PAD 632 Financial Management and Accounting in Nonprofit Organizations. Teaches students to develop an understanding of basic financial accounting principles and actions, and to develop an increased understanding of the management control function and the incorporation of such a function into financial management systems in health care organizations. Essentially, this is a "skills" course focusing on developing increased capacity for students to be knowledgeable of financial and managerial accounting in nonprofit and governmental organizational settings. 3 Cr.

PAD 633 Managed Health Care. Examines the principles of "managed care" and their application in health care. Provides students with a basic orientation to the various examples of managed care through a historical perspective in the overall health care environment. Addresses various user and provider needs including purchasers (the general public and employers), regulators (state and federal), providers (physicians and institutions), and insurance carriers. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 634 Legal Issues in Health Care. Fully examines and analyzes the issues, laws, theoretical premises and challenges confronting organizations and society regarding health care. Teaches students to understand the relationship between different legal, ethical, moral, and political considerations affecting health care decisions. Examines current legal issues. 3 Cr. TBA.

PAD 636 Security Management. Provides a comprehensive examination of the nature and problems of private and public security management. Focus is placed on issues of administration and the skills and solutions necessary for successful management of the security function. Topics include the historical development of the profession, organization and placement in the corporate setting, security technology and procedures, crime prevention strategies, managing workplace violence, and deriving value-added contributions from security operations. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 638 Environmental Management. Provides students with the general knowledge necessary to meet the complex environmental challenges they will face as future mid- and top-level managers. Focuses on legal and managerial issues using lectures, readings, discussion, and analysis of case studies. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 644 Supervision Skills. For those now in (or preparing for) informal or formal leadership positions, supervisory skills are learned through discussion, exercises, role plays, and the design /presentation of a training module on topics such as: coaching and counseling, leading staff meetings, handling employee complaints, delegating responsibility, performance problem solving, performance appraisal interviewing, disciplinary action, and the job interview. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 645 Communications in Organizations. PAD 682 is strongly advised. Covers communication by supervisors in face-to-face, small group and public contexts. Emphasizes interpersonal skills, including: building self-esteem; awareness of behavioral styles; nonverbal language techniques; how to inform, direct, listen, praise, criticize, reprimand, encourage and confront; and basic interviewing and negotiation skills. Also covers small-group processes, group leadership and teamwork skills, and communications in public contexts, including writing memos and reports. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 648 Changing Federalism: Albany Prepares. Prerequisite PAD 680. Prepares public and nonprofit administrators to respond to changes in policy initiatives under discussion in Washington. Emphasizes the changing federal-state-local relations, the development of creative practice responses and identification of executive agency key actors. Teaches students to become familiar with state level policies. This five-day seminar in Albany, NY, is intended for both public and nonprofit administrators. 3 Cr.

PAD 649 Improving Program Performance in Nonprofit Organizations. Builds competencies in critical skills needed to successfully manage programs in nonprofit, health, health and human service organizations. Addresses the use of quality systems and evaluation concepts to improve program outcomes. Covers use of logic models to design effective programs. Explores basic budget development, objective setting, and methods for monitoring ongoing progress. Gives students experience in researching best practices and use of common program management tools. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 653 Ethics in Administration. Enables students to gain a conceptual and practical understanding of ethics and of the principal ethical theories. Teaches students to appreciate how ethics are applied to decisions and behavior in professional life, whether in the public or nonprofit sectors. Examines the relationship between being ethical, and leadership and excellence in management. 3 Cr. Summer.

PAD 654 Managerial Leadership in the 21st Century. Taught on selected weekends. Includes an intensive weekend seminar at Cornell University taught by Dr. Kenneth Blanchard, author of The One Minute Manager. Covers current leadership principles and techniques applicable to the student's current or future staff, supervisor, peers and associates, and clients/customers. Includes the different roles of a leader, four primary styles of leadership, communication skills, diagnosis of the studentÕs interpersonal and leadership style, applying continuous improvement to the quality of services, and building teamwork skills. Includes lecture-discussion, case analyses, role plays, films, self-assessment through diagnostic instruments, team problem solving, and a paper applying course concepts 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 655 Medicare and Medicaid Policy Issues. Provides a thorough overview of both the Medicare and Medicaid programs: their background and history; eligibility; covered benefits; provider reimbursement methods; program administration; financing; cost and spending patterns; their respective roles and importance in the American health care system; and how Medicare and Medicaid both affect, and are affected by, current health care reform proposals. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 656 Service Process Management. Recommended prerequisites: PAD 681 and 682. Increasing global competition and streamlining of hierarchies are emerging characteristics of the Õ90s which present new management challenges and opportunities. Provides a framework of quality concepts, ideas and theory combined with an array of practical skills. Introduces students to a brief history and philosophy of total quality management, continuous improvement and re-engineering. Explores quality as a multi-purpose concept with emphasis on its use as a strategy for competitive advantage in the public, nonprofit and health sectors of our economy. Using this new management paradigm, assesses an organization's effectiveness in meeting customersÕ needs, how to select key result areas for its agencies, and how to develop key result measures. Addresses creation of a culture that empowers employees and manifests itself in teamwork as well as appropriate reward and recognition systems. Teaches a variety of quality tools including a common quality language, the essence of teamwork, statistical process control, work flow analysis, cause and effect diagrams (fish bone), and problem-solving techniques. Provides frequent use of case studies to develop critical thinking and analysis, communication techniques, and group skills. 3 Cr.

PAD 657 Women as Managers. Prerequisite: PAD 682. Examines issues facing women managers and aspiring managers in todayÕs organization such as women's struggle to crack through the proverbial "glass ceiling" and assume positions in the upper echelons of organizations. Uses political, psychological and sociological paradigms to explore the unique dilemmas and challenges of women in administrative positions. Addresses vital leadership issues such as power, status, authority and influence with regard to the impact of gender bias in the work place. Considers gender differences in communication, decision making and managing individuals and groups. Gives major attention to concrete ideas and realistic strategies for creating pathways to managerial success. Uses research, theory and lessons learned by successful women managers to foster an awareness of the unique managerial qualities women possess. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 659 Policy Issues in Public Safety. Examines critical policy issues facing todayÕs public safety manager. Explores crucial problems in the public safety environment in terms of both the internal and external forces which can affect a public safety administrator's approach to problem solving. Emphasizes concrete ideas and realistic strategies for management effectiveness. Includes participation of experienced public safety managers who will provide a practical, "hands on" view of issues explored. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 661 Creating an Empowered Organization. Covers the many issues surrounding the development of empowered teams from both the leaderÕs and team member's perspective. Includes a mix of current theories and experiential activities, with the latter to be used as the primary instruction method. Since there is no generic "step by step" plan for building an empowered organization, challenges students with applying the general theories and methodologies to their own workplace. Focuses throughout the course on the role of manager in developing empowered teams. 3 Cr. Summer, Fall.

PAD 662 Strategies in Public Administration. Examines issues around policy and management with a stress on the "art" of convincing others that a certain policy should be implemented. Course covers agenda setting, cost/benefit analysis, decision-making, computer simulation and Pareto optimality. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 665 Introduction to Computers. Provides opportunities for students to learn basic Windows and DOS concepts such as file and hard disk management, input-output operations, and equipment requirements to assist in understanding IBM-compatible computer systems. Introduces three applications which are valuable tools for managers: word processing, spreadsheets and database management. Knowledge of these PC-based applications is recommended for all students in the MPA program. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 666 Computer Applications. Prerequisite: PAD 665 or sufficient experience with computers to be determined by the professor. Introduces students to computer functions such as hardware, modems, single vs. network printers, network concepts, topologies, telecommunications. Explores computer applications at the intermediate level, including file types valuable to managers like text files, binary files, database files, GUI interfaces, DOS and UNIX with the goal of making managers more productive. Builds upon student's basic knowledge of computer functions and software programs such as Microsoft Excel, Access, and Project. 3 Cr. Fall

PAD 668 Database Applications for Managers. Prerequisite: A working familiarity with microcomputer operation systems strongly recommended. Teaches students to create and maintain databases, make data queries and reports, and to develop unique database applications to meet specific management needs. Focuses first on the basics of database management with the most current and widely used database management software; then allows students to use these skills to create a database application of their choosing. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 670 Computer Presentations for Managers. Prerequisite: A working familiarity with microcomputer operating systems highly recommended. Teaches students to use current and widely used spreadsheet and presentation management software. Explores first the development and maintenance of spread sheets, spreadsheet graphics, and macros (commands that control spreadsheet behavior); then allows students to animate textual and graphic presentations with presentation management software. Uses student class presentations to practice and perfect computer presentation skills. 3 Cr.

PAD 672 Internet for Managers. Prerequisite: Students are required to have a home PC with Windows and a modem. Provides opportunities for students to learn to use the Internet (NET) resources to gather information and do research on resources which include E-mail, Listserv, Telnet, FTP and Archie, Gopher and Veronica, World Wide Web, and a commercial on-line computer service. Teaches students to access computers around the world to retrieve information on any topic. Includes only two class sessions; weekly assignments will be completed using e-mail and computer conferencing. Final assignment involves a network resource guide to be developed by the student. 3 Cr.

PAD 674 Financial Management. Covers financial management as a control process in managerial activities, including treasury, accounting, and auditing systems, and the functions which relate to these systems. 3 Cr.

PAD 678 Nonprofit Management. Provides an understanding of nonprofit organizations: their characteristics, purpose, structure, role, and the management challenges confronting them. Examines practical methods and strategies for strengthening governance and board issues; planning; fundraising; marketing; public relations; financial management; and working with volunteers. Emphasizes organizational and management issues specific to health and human services agencies. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 679 Grants Writing and Management. Gives a comprehensive overview of the grant process and how it can be integrated into the mission of the public or not-for-profit organization. The course will involve two very important elements for those who are ready to add grants to their revenue stream --writing a grant and following through after you receive the grant. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 680 Public Policy. Focuses on public problems and policy development, including public issues and policy responses, the role of values, and the function of the bureaucracy in formulating and implementing public policy. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 681 Organizational Management. Presents new theories of management, strategic thinking, and the goal-oriented planning and control techniques essential for survival. Explores the dilemmas and challenges of todayÕs managers in a dynamic economy. Provides students with concepts in four areas crucial to modern managers in the present and future such as industry analysis, competitive positioning, management of change, development of strategic thinking, visioning, leadership, long- and short-range planning, and control systems. Explores management of diversity and the question of ethics in today's restructured economy. Uses interactive lecture-discussion format and case studies designed to enable students to develop team-building and communication skills. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 682 Organizational Behavior. Focuses on the interpersonal and social characteristics of organizations and the skills required to manage them. Covers topics from a behavioral perspective, including motivation, communication, leadership, group and intergroup behavior, conflict management, problem solving, ethics, diversity, and other special topics. Features role plays, field interviews, films and the application of measurement instruments to complement the lecture-discussion format. Draws examples from governmental, nonprofit, and business organizations. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 683 Intergovernmental Relations. Prerequisite: PAD 680. Explores tensions between national goals and state and local priorities, and the implications for subnational units of shifts in priorities and grant-in-aid instruments at the national level. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 684 Budget-State and Local Government. Examines budgeting as a crucial management function in public and not-for-profit organizations. Gives special concern to the politics, practice, and analysis which surround the budgetary process. Emphasizes the planning emphasis involved in budgeting. 3 Cr. Fall.

PAD 685 Human Resource Management. Covers human resource management (HRM) principles and skills useful for both the supervisor and the personnel specialist in the public, nonprofit and private sectors. Includes the role of the human resource manager, job analysis and position descriptions, selection, EEO and affirmative action, civil service, employee rights, quality of work life, compensation and benefits, performance appraisal, training and career development, labor relations, and occupational safety/ health. Uses team projects, class exercises, role plays, student presentations, lecture-discussion and a Human Resource Information System demonstration to assure that both the knowledge and skills of human resource management are learned. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 686 Budget-Health. Provides students en rolled in the health emphasis of the MPA program with an exposure to budgeting and financial operations in a variety of public and private health care organizations. Demonstrates how organizations function as enterprise activities where revenues are generated as a result of service delivery and must cover all costs of operations, and how the health care organization has the added objective of long-term profits or surplus. Explores both planning and controlling as management aspects of budgeting. Considers significant changes occurring in the financing of health care in America and the role of the health care organization within the total public policy framework. 3 Cr. Spring.

PAD 687 Statistics for Managers. Taught as a lab course utilizing the GBSTAT microcomputer soft ware package. Provides students with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to execute, critique, and interpret statistical analysis. Covers probability theory and distributions, descriptive statistics, parametric statistics, and non-parametric statistics. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 688 Research and Program Evaluation. Prerequisite: PAD 687 or instructor's permission. Covers methods of measuring the efficiency, effectiveness, and impact of programs and services. Teaches students to apply statistical tools, use the computer in problem solving, design research projects, interpret research results, and evaluate programs. Places subject matter in a context that the practicing administrator can apply to programmatic needs. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 690 Internship Health, 3 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of 21 hours toward the MPA degree, including PAD 613 and PAD 681. The internship is a guided 8-week work experience. It is designed to provide the student an opportunity to observe and participate in the practical application of theories, concepts and techniques taught in the Public Administration program. Through health care sector employment, the student can learn practical administrative or policy practices, integrate theoretical issues with those found in the workplace, and find an opportunity to gain experience in work areas which are new to the student. The topic of the internship is determined jointly by the student with the assistance of the course instructor. Students with two or more years of professional work experience may elect to have the internship requirement waived, in which case they can do an application exercise or take another course. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 691 Internship Health, 6 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of 21 hours toward the MPA degree, including PAD 613 and PAD 681. The internship is a guided 16-week work experience. It is designed to provide the student an opportunity to observe and participate in the practical application of theories, concepts, and techniques taught in the Public Administration program. Through health care sector employment, the student can learn practical administrative or policy practices, integrate theoretical issues with those found in the workplace, and find an opportunity to gain experience in work areas which are new to the student. The topic of the internship is determined jointly by the student with the assistance of the course instructor. 6 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 692 Internship General, 3 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of 21 hours toward the MPA degree, including PAD 680 and PAD 681. The internship is a guided 8-week work experience. It is designed to provide the student an opportunity to observe and participate in the practical application of theories, concepts, and techniques taught in the Public Administration program. Through public sector employment, the student can learn practical administrative or policy practices, integrate theoretical issues with those found in the workplace, and find an opportunity to gain experience in work areas which are new to the student. The topic of the internship is determined jointly by the student with the assistance of the course instructor. Students with two or more years of professional work experience may elect to have the internship requirement waived, in which case they can do an application exercise or take another course. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 693 Internship General, 6 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of 21 hours toward the MPA degree, including PAD 680 and P AD 681. A guided 16- week work experience. Designed to provide the student an opportunity to observe and participate in the practical application of theories, concepts, and techniques taught in the Public Administration program. Through public sector employment, the student can learn practical administrative or policy practices, integrate theoretical issues with those found in the workplace, and find an opportunity to gain experience in work areas which are new to the student. The topic of the internship is determined jointly by the student with the assistance of the course instructor. 6 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 694 Internship, IMS, 3 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of 21 hours toward the MPA degree, including PAD 666 and PAD 620. The internship in Information Management is a guided work experience designed to provide the student with an opportunity to observe and participate in the practical application of theories, concepts, and techniques taught in the Public Administration program's Information Management emphasis. Through employment for a period of eight weeks, the student can learn practical administrative or policy practices, integrate theoretical issues with those found in the workplace, and find an opportunity to gain experience in work areas which are new to the student. Students can find internships in the sub fields of network administration, programming, information systems management, and related areas. The topic of the internship is determined jointly by the student with the assistance of the course instructor. Students with two or more y ears of professional work experience may elect to have the internship requirement waived, in which case they can do an application exercise or take another course. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 695 Internship IMS, 6 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of 21 hours toward the MPA degree, including PAD 666 and PAD 620. The internship in Information Management is a guided work experience designed to provide the student an opportunity to observe and participate in the practical application of theories, concepts, and techniques taught in the Public Administration program's Information Management emphasis. Through employment for a period of 16 weeks, the student can learn practical administrative or policy practices, integrate theoretical issues with those found in the workplace, and find an opportunity to gain experience in work areas which are new to the student. Students can find internships in the sub fields of network administration, programming, information systems management, and related areas. The topic of the internship is determined jointly by the student with the assistance of the course instructor. 6 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 696 Project Paper Seminar, General. Prerequisite: Instructor's permission during semester prior to registration. Requires students in the program to write a project paper or develop a student portfolio for the masterÕs degree. Students must have completed at least 21 credits or, preferably, be enrolled in his/her last semester of course work. Administrative, policy, and operational issues are acceptable as topics. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 697 Project Paper Seminar, IMS. Prerequisite: Instructor's permission during semester prior to registration. Requires students in the program to write a project paper or develop a student portfolio for the masterÕs degree. Students must have completed at least 21 credits or, preferably, be enrolled in his/her last semester of course work. Administrative, policy, and operational issues are acceptable as topics. 3 Cr. Fall and Spring.

PAD 698 Project Paper Seminar, Health. Prerequisite: Instructor's permission during semester prior to registration. Requires students in the program to write a project paper or develop a student portfolio for the masterÕs degree. Students must have completed at least 21 credits or preferably be enrolled in his/her last semester of course work. Administrative, policy, and operational issues are acceptable as topics. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

PAD 699 Independent Study. Allows students to work individually with faculty on an area of special interest. Requires students to develop the objectives and methodologies, subject to review and approval of the faculty. 3 Cr. Every Semester.


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