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Undergraduate Studies Catalog (1999-2001)

Department of Biological Sciences

102 Lennon Hall
(716) 395-2193
Fax (716)395-2741

Course Descriptions

Chairperson: Larry K. Kline; Professors: Thomas Bonner, James Haynes, Joseph Makarewicz, Delmont Smith; Associate Professors: David Brannigan, Steven Chan, P. Michael Fox, Larry Kline, Craig Lending; Assistant Professors: Patricia Harris, John Hunter, Kathleen Moody, Christopher Norment, Sara Silverstone; Research Associate: Theodore Lewis. Visiting Professor: M. Tomkiewicz. Visiting Assistant Professor: Nancy Mitchell.

The Department of Biological Sciences offers two majors and two minors, and a variety of tracks in the major. Both majors and minors are designed for students with an interest in one or several of the many aspects of the life sciences and provide excellent preparation for postgraduate training and careers in the biomedical, health, ecological and environmental sciences, teaching, and other fields that require an understanding and practice of scientific reasoning and methods.

Through courses taken during the freshman and sophomore years, students build a scientific foundation for understanding how biological systems function. In the junior and senior years, students may concentrate in several areas of departmental strength: pre-medicine, biotechnology, environmental biology (terrestrial and aquatic ecology), or an individualized program. Internships and cooperative programs with public and private organizations afford students the opportunity to apply their skills outside the classroom. Because of complex biological and ecological issues that face modern society, we encourage non-majors to take selected courses in biological sciences. Upon declaring a major in biological sciences, it is imperative that the student seek a faculty advisor by contacting the department secretary, Room 103 Lennon Hall.

Students majoring in Biological Sciences, Medical Technology, and [Environmental Sciences] are required to obtain a minimum grade of "C" in BIO 201, BIO 202 (and/or BIO 111) before they are allowed to take further courses in the major.

Students may transfer the above courses from other regionally accredited institutions to satisfy this requirement provided that the courses have been approved as equivalent and that the students have earned a grade of "C" or higher in the courses transferred.

Major in Biological Sciences

Biology requirements
(38 credits; 30 credits at the 300 and 400 level) Credits
BIO 201 Biology I 4
BIO 202 Biology II 4
BIO 302 Genetics 4
BIO 303 Ecology 4
BIO 300-level electives (one or two courses by advisement) 4-8
BIO 411 Evolution 3
BIO 498 Seminar 1
BIO 400-level courses (by advisement) 10-14

Minimum Total: 38

Elective credits at the 300 level must be selected from the following:
BIO 301 Cell Biology 4
BIO 305 Comparative Physiology 4
BIO 321 Anatomy and Physiology I 4
BIO 322 Anatomy and Physiology II 4
BIO 323 Microbiology 4

Chemistry requirements:
CHM 205-206 College Chemistry I & II 8
CHM 305 Organic Chemistry I 4

Recommended: Those students considering graduate or medical school are strongly advised to take the following:

CHM 306 Organic Chemistry II 4
MTH 201-202 Calculus I & II 6
PHS 201-202 College Physics I & II 8

Those students in other biology tracks are advised to consider courses in computer science, statistics and general physics to support their career goals. Handbooks that list recommended courses for each track are available from the department secretary.

NOTE: In normal progress toward the degree, BIO 201, 202, CHM 205, 206, and the recommended mathematics courses are taken in the freshman year. BIO 302, 303, CHM 305, and the recommended CHM 306 courses are taken in the sophomore year. The recommended PHS 201 and 202 courses are taken in the junior year and 400-level biology courses in the junior and senior years. Only three credits of BIO 499 Independent Study, may be included in the 38 credits required for the major.

Transfer Students

Transfer students must complete a minimum of 18 credits of upper-division courses in the Department of Biological Sciences at SUNY Brockport regardless of the numbers of credits transferred.

Advisement: To assure proper advisement in particular tracks, students should declare a major as early as possible, preferably in the freshman year. Majors are declared with the department secretary, Room 103, Lennon Hall.

Concentration Areas

Pre-medicine, Pre-dentistry, Pre-veterinary, Health Careers
Students from SUNY Brockport annually apply for admission to medical, dental, osteopathic, optometry, podiatry, chiropractic, and physical therapy schools. Although at Brockport most "pre-med" professional students have majored in the biological sciences, there is no special major for pre-professional health care, and the requirements for admission can be met through a variety of majors available at the College. The program in biological sciences is well-established and our graduates successfully compete for positions in professional programs. We do arrange programs with local health care facilities, such as the Oak Orchard Community Health Center, to provide "pre-med" students with the experiential component necessary for successful application to medical school. On your arrival at Brockport, please contact the department for further information on this program.

Pre-professional Advisory Committee
The Pre-professional Advisory Committee assists students interested in entering the medically related professions through formal meetings, counseling, and a library of materials; by providing application materials for the MCAT, DAT, and OAT exams (the admissions tests for medical, podiatric, dental and optometry schools); and b y preparing a committee evaluation prior to application based on a formal interview with the applicant as well as test scores and GPA. This committee consists of two faculty members from biological sciences and a faculty member from chemistry.

Resource materials, admission statistics, suggested courses of study, admission test applications, and procedural information are available for SUNY Brockport students in the Biology Club room of the Department of Biological Sciences, Lennon Hall.

Biotechnology: The department is well-equipped to provide skills in cell and tissue culture, immunology, nucleic acid separations and electron microscopy. A substantial percentage of graduates who have obtained these skills have successfully entered jobs in government and industrial laboratories.

Environmental-Aquatic: A large variety of courses in limnology, fish biology, freshwater invertebrates, aquaculture and water chemistry develop skills and factual knowledge for successful admission to graduate school and application to private and government jobs. The College boat is berthed on nearby Lake Ontario.

Environmental-Terrestrial: Field and lab training is available in animal, plant, and ecological sciences. Included are courses in field biology, mammalogy, botany, herpetology, ornithology and behavior. Several natural areas are adjacent to the campus (New York State Barge Canal, Hamlin Beach State Park) that are extensively used for courses.

Certification in Secondary Education (7-12): Biology and General Science Students who intend to become secondary school biology teachers qualify for New York state provisional certification by completing the requirement of Bachelor of Science degree and the requisite courses toward certification in secondary education as arranged with the Department of Education and Human Development.

Because the certification requirements are extensive and changeable, the student should meet with an advisor as soon as possible. Pre-environmental Science & Forestry (3/2 programs)
Students completing the five-year 3/2 program receive the Bachelor of Science degree in biological sciences from SUNY Brockport and the master's degree in a specialization area from SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF). Those pursuing this program must satisfy the College requirements for four-year programs. Appropriate courses at ESF may be used to fulfill some SUNY Brockport requirements. The College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse has four schools, each of which has specific requirements. Brockport students plan their academic work under the direction of Dr. James Haynes, our pre-environmental science and forestry liaison, to assure selection of appropriate courses for the curriculum to be followed at Syracuse. SUNY Brockport also offers a Master of Science in Biological Sciences with an opportunity to concentrate in environmental sciences.

Major in Medical Technology
The major in medical technology enables a student to obtain the BS degree in Medical Technology from SUNY Brockport at the end of a four-year program, including three academic years here and a fourth calendar year at a school of medical technology approved by the College. During the first three years each student fulfills the general education requirements and the major requirements. The fourth year at a school of medical technology includes both theoretical and practical work in a medical lab. The BS degree is awarded upon the satisfactory completion of the requirements of both institutions. Upon completion of the internship, the student is eligible to take the National Registry Examination which must be passed in order to be qualified as a Registered Medical Technologist. The program is currently offered in affiliation with Rochester General Hospital.

To enter this program, students declare a major in biological sciences in the freshman year to assure proper advisement. Majors are declared with the department secretary, Room 103, Lennon Hall. A formal application to the School of Medical Technology is made by the middle of the fall semester of the junior year. Based on the academic record for the freshmen, sophomore years and mid-semester grades of the fall semester of the junior year and an interview, the decision is made as to which applicants will be formally admitted into the clinical y ear. This decision is competitive and made by the school of Medical Technology. Those students accepted into the clinical year are accepted into the major in medical technology at SUNY Brockport.

Suggested Program for SUNY Brockport courses-Medical Technology
Semester 1 Credits Semester 2 Credits
BIO 201 Biology I* 4 BIO 202 Biology II* 4 CHM 205 College Chem I* 4 CHM 206 College Chem II* 4
GEP 100 APS 1 MTH 121 or higher* 3
ENL 112 College Composition 3 Breadth Component 3
Breadth Component 3

15 14

Semester 3 Semester 4
BIO 302 Genetics* 4 CHM 306 or 303* 4
CHM 305 Organic Chemistry* 4 BIO 322 Anatomy & Physiology II* 4
BIO 321 Anatomy & Physiology I* 4 BUS 365 Principles of Management # 4 Breadth Component 3
Breadth Component 3

15 15

Semester 5 Semester 6
BIO 323 Microbiology* 4 BIO 301 Cell Biology* 4
BIO 414 Immunology* 2 PHS 116 General Physics II* 4
PHS 115 General Physics I# 4 SOC 200 Social Statistics# 3
HLS 306 Contemporary Issues Breadth Component 3
in Health# 3 Elective 3
Breadth Component 3

16 17

* Required courses in Medical Technology
# Recommended courses

The following courses (34 credits) are usually required in the clinical year at an approved school of medical technology: microbiology (immunology), clinical chemistry, hematology, blood bank, urinalysis/clinical microscopy, principles of disease, toxicology.

Minor in Biological Sciences
A minimum of 18 credits, of which at least 10 must be at the 300/400 level, is required for the minor. Students declaring a minor in biological sciences must earn at least nine credits of biology courses at SUNY Brockport. Since no specific courses are designated, a variety of tracks is possible and it is important that students seek advisement through the Undergraduate Coordinator (inquire in Room 103, Lennon Hall). Many students working towards teacher certification and/or majoring in other disciplines elect a minor to strengthen their degrees.

Minor in Environmental Studies in the Biological Sciences The environmental studies minor is specifically designed for non-biology majors with an active interest in environmental problems and nature in general. The courses recommended provide a background in ecological and biological principles upon which specialty courses in ecology, field study and organismal biology are dependent.

Required Courses (8 Credits)
BIO 201 Biology I or Biology II
BIO 303 Ecology

Cross-disciplinary Experience (3 Credits; choose one)
BIO 319 Biological Oceanography
BIO 419 Limnology
BIO 422 Population Biology
BIO 423 Pollution Biology
BIO 438 Conservation Biology

Field Experience (2-6 credits; choose one)
BIO 421 Limnology Lab
BIO 457 Oceanography Practicum
BIO 477 Field Biology
BIO 488 Environmental Impact Analysis
BIO 490 Fishery Techniques/Identification

Organismal Biology Experience (3-4 credits; choose one)
BIO 459 Mammalogy
BIO 483 Aquatic Invertebrates
BIO 484 Fish Ecology
BIO 430 Ornithology
BIO 440 Herpetology

Biological Sciences Courses

BIO 111 Principles of Biology (A,L). Lectures and laboratory activities examine the structure and function of living systems, from cells to the biosphere as a whole. For non-majors. Serves as prerequisite for advanced courses, including BIO 321-322. 4 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 201 Biology I (A). Provides an integrated exploration of the fundamentals of biology as a science, the nature and origin of life, biological chemistry, cell biology, genetics and evolution. Draws upon plants, animals and microbes to illustrate structure and function relationships. For majors. (BIO 201 and 202 are not sequential; either may be taken first.) 4 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 202 Biology II (A). Focuses on organismal biology b y taking an evolutionary approach to examine how animals and plants adapt to the environment, to study structure and functions by examining both animal and plant physiology and to integrate this knowledge with laboratories that run parallel with the lectures. 4 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 221 Survey of Anatomy and Physiology (A,L). Surveys human anatomy and physiology, encompassing structure and function of skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Presents development and integration of these units as a basis for understanding the anatomical and physiological aspects of humans at rest and during activity. Primarily for physical education and dance majors. Includes a lab. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 281 Elements of Human Biology (A,N). Provides an introduction for non-majors to the human organism--structure, physiology, metabolism, behavior, genetics, evolution, and ecological relationships. Addresses important issues in health and human disease as well as current societal and ethical issues in readings, lectures, and classroom discussions. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 301 Cell Biology (A). Prerequisites: BIO 201 and 202; CHM 205. Covers cellular functions and structures and the interrelationship between them. Requires a lab including procedures and tools of cell biology. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 302 Genetics (A). Prerequisites: BIO 201, 202; CHM 205 and 206. Recommended: One semester of organic chemistry. Covers the gene as the basis of variation and principles of heredity. Includes Mendelian genetics as w ell as molecular aspects including replication, transcription, and translation. Covers topics in genetic regulation, conjugation, mutation and repair, as well as population genetics. Provides experiments to illustrate the above principles. Includes computer simulations of linkage and evolution. 4 Cr. Fall.

BIO 303 Ecology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 111 or 201 or 202. Covers basic ecology concerned with interrelationships among organisms and the environment. Considers energy flow, materials cycling, population dynamics, principles of animal behavior, as well as natural history in both lectures and field studies. 4 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 305 Comparative Physiology (A). Prerequisites: BIO 111 or 201 or 202; CHM 205 and 206. Takes a comparative and experimental approach to understanding ho w living organisms function. Examines fundamental but selective aspects of physiology, including homeostatic energy balance, metabolism, water and salt regulation, respiration, locomotion, adaptation to altitude/diving, and nervous and endocrine integration. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 312 Sex, Evolution, and Behavior (A,I,W). Studies the relationship between genetics, anatomy, physiology, and behavior from the point of view of sexual reproduction, competition, and fitness. Also explores the relationship between reproductive mating systems and specific ecological environments. Invertebrates and vertebrates will be examined, with a final discussion on whether humans "fit" the typical patterns encountered in other mammalian species. For non-biology majors. 3 Cr. Summer.

BIO 316 Eco-Citizenship (A,I). Prerequisites: Junior or senior status. Addresses questions such as: What ecological principles determine how humans can and cannot use the environment? How can individuals live and act to protect the environment? How can citizens work together to change values and institutions in society to promote sustainable uses of the environment and natural resources? What are the critical environmental problems in the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem and the world, and how can residents act to solve them? 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 317 The Biology of Aging (A). Introduces the study of aging in the human and a number of other animals at the molecular, cell, tissue and organ level to understand what is meant by aging and how it is measured. Includes effects of genetic composition, sex differences and other factors. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 319 Biological Oceanography (A). Cross-listed as ESC 319. Provides a brief review of the ocean's physical, geological and chemical properties, followed by an in-depth study of the biology and life history of marine plants and animals. Concludes with discussions on the ecological roles of marine organisms in selected communities, including inter tidal, coral reef and deep sea habitats. May be taken for credit only once. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 321 Anatomy and Physiology I (A). Prerequisite: BIO 111 or 202 or 221. Studies the structures and functions of cells, tissues and organs with examples drawn from the human body. Introduces students to the anatomy and physiology of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and integumentary systems of the body through lectures and laboratories. Recommended for nursing, health science and pre-medical students. 4 Cr. Fall.

BIO 322 Anatomy and Physiology II (A). Prerequisite: BIO 111 or 202 or 221. Introduces students to the anatomy and physiology of circulatory, excretory, respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems of the human body through lectures and laboratories. Recommended for nursing, health science and pre-medical students. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 323 Microbiology (A). Prerequisites: BIO 111, 201 or 202 and CHM 205. Provides lectures concerned with the structure, function, diversity, and control of microorganisms, including metabolism, growth and regulation, microbial genetics, disease, immunology, and microbial ecology. Provides lab experiences in techniques of pure culture, cultivation, enumeration, isolation and characterization of micro-organisms. 4 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 333 Contemporary Issues in Life Sciences (A,I,W). What is life? When does human life begin? How do genes control life processes? Is it natural/ethical to alter the genetic makeup of species, including humans? Is genetic engineering a technology for improving the quality of life or for potentially destroying life on Earth as we know it? Vaccines may prevent human diseases, but what are the consequences of over-population and starvation? These and other questions serve as the focal point that explores some of the controversial issues raised by modern biotechnology. Provides background information for identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical issues facing the life sciences. Explores these issues from a variety of perspectives including scientific, economic, political and socio logical. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 400 Plant Taxonomy (A). Prerequisite: BIO 202. The morphology, evolution, and classification of the vascular plants. Lecture topics include structure and ecological significat of these digits refers to the level of the course; the next two indicate the specific course. Thus ENL 165 is an English course designed for the lower-division student, and the 65 indicates the specific course offering, which is International Short Story. These numbers are followed by the actual course title, and this in turn is followed by letters within parentheses that tell whether the course is liberal arts (A) or professional (B) in nature, and whether it may be used to fulfill one or more of the Gennce, reproductive biology, evolutionary history, and principles of classification. Laboratories survey the diversity of plants and teach the use of technical keys. 4 Cr.

BIO 411 Evolution (A). Prerequisite: BIO 302. Corequisite: BIO 303. Commences with a review of philosophical and factual basis of evolutionary biology. Examines the physiochemical background for the evolution of life, mechanisms of evolution, population genetics, phylogeny, speciation, and consequences of the evolution of populations of living organisms. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 413 Topics in Plant Biology (A). Prerequisites: BIO 301 and 302, or instructor's permission. Presents current topics in plant biology including photosynthesis, plant physiology, development, plant cell biology, control of gene regulation, and nitrogen fixation. Reviews the current scientific literature and examines recent experimental data. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 414 Introduction to Immunology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 202, 301 or 323. Emphasizes aspects of immunology, including the structure and function of immunoglobulins, the role of cell-mediated immunity, the protective role of the immune system, and disease and injury as related to malfunctions of the immune system. 2 Cr. Fall.

BIO 415 Molecular Biology (A). Prerequisites: BIO 301 and 302; and CHM 305. Covers the biosynthesis and function of macromolecules, especially nucleic acids. Includes topics in regulation, molecular virology, transposition and transformation, as well as recombinant DNA methods. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 416 Lab Techniques in Exercise Physiology (B). Cross-listed as PES 416. Prerequisite: BIO 111 or equivalent, PES 310, MTH 121, or instructor's permission. Complements the theoretical preparation of students in exercise physiology. Provides experiences in the measurement of acute and chronic adaptations to exercise, the use of technology in the measurement and assessment of physiological functioning during such conditions, and the maintenance and calibration of such equipment. Actively immerses students in the subject to better conceptualize, and internalize, what it means to administer tests, and analyze and interpret data in a meaningful and systematic manner. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 417 Recombinant DNA (A). Considers theory and techniques in the recombinant DNA field. Topics include cloning vectors, restriction analysis, PCR methods, and expression of cloned genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Also considers examples and implications of recombinant DNA methodology in plants and agriculture as well as in medicine, human genetics and disease. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 419 Principles of Limnology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 303 or instructor's permission. Studies the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of streams and lakes. Recommended for students interested in oceanography and marine biology, as well as the study of freshwater streams and lakes. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 421 Limnology Lab (A). Prerequisite: BIO 303. Covers the basic methodology of sampling different types of organisms; chemical analysis of water; operation of instruments and sampling gear; and taxonomic identification of selected aquatic organisms. Includes lab and field exercises on Lake Ontario on the department boat. 2 Cr. Fall.

BIO 422 Population Biology (A). Considers the evolution and function of populations. Includes topics such as population genetics, reproductive isolating mechanisms, growth and limitation of populations, life tables, the exclusion principle, predator-prey theory, and species equilibrium theory. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 423 Biology of Pollution (A). Prerequisite: BIO 303 or instructor's permission. Focuses on water pollution problems and effects of pollution on organism physiology, behavior and ecological relationships; bioassay techniques and procedures; and analysis of pollution data. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 424 Experimental Research (A). Prerequisites: BIO 201, 202, 302 and 303; CHM 205 and 206; and instructor's and chairperson's permission. Under the supervision of a faculty member in biology, the student undertakes a lab or field research project in some area of biological science. The topic and methodology is established by mutual consent of the student and faculty member. All students enrolled meet together with the involved faculty once a week to discuss the background, methods, and results of their projects. Students are encouraged to present their results at Scholars Day. May be repeated; a maximum of six credits may be applied toward the major in biological sciences. Enrollment is with the department chairperson. 1-4 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 425 Practical Field Biology and Lab Pedagogy (B). Required for students working toward teacher certification in secondary biology and general science. Requires students to develop preparation notes, and materials for lab and field experiments. Requires each student to develop a lesson plan, lead a class in the experiment/lab, develop a grading scheme, and do the actual grading for a selected lab. Requires a hands-on experience in the practical aspects of lab instruction. Does not satisfy the biology major requirements. Enrollment is with the department chairperson. Students work with a selected faculty member. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 427 Animal Behavior (A). Prerequisites: BIO 201 and 202. Explores the behavior of animals in relation to adaption and phylogenetic history. Covers methods of studying behavior, the effects of genes and environment on behavior, relationships between neural and endocrine function and behavior, foraging, mating strategies and systems, and social systems. Includes lectures, discussions, and laboratory and field exercises. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 428 Microtechnique (A). Prerequisite: BIO 202. Students will demonstrate competency in the preparation of tissue by paraffin sectioning and histochemistry. The theory underlying these techniques will be discussed in lecture, and their application to a hospital pathology laboratory will also be considered. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 429 Electron Microscopy (A). Prerequisite: BIO 301. Provides the theory of electron optics and skills of electron microscopy. Also includes methods of specimen preparation and skills of ultramicrotomy. Places a strong emphasis on lab. 4 Cr. Fall.

BIO 430 Ornithology. Prerequisites: BIO 201 and 202. The study of the form, function, ecology, and evolution of birds. Topics include anatomy, physiology, origins and biophysics of flight, migration and annual cycle, mating systems, community ecology, and population ecology of birds. Laboratory and field experiences include the study of anatomy and flight, identification techniques, census methods, and trapping and banding. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 433 Instrumental Methods III-Radio activity and Enzyme Assay (A). Prerequisites: BIO 301 and 302, and CHM 305. Covers principles and experiments involving the use and measurement of radioactive isotopes, liquid scintillation counting, and measurement of enzyme activity using spectrophotometric and radioisotope techniques. Given third four weeks of semester only with eight, three hour lab sessions. 1 Cr. Fall.

BIO 436 Water Quality Analysis (A). Prerequisite: CHM 205, 206, or instructor's permission. Covers the use of a spectrophotometer, fluorometer, gas chromatograph and the atomic absorption spectrophotometer in the chemical analysis of water by standard methods. Designed for students interested in water quality analyses for water treatment plants, sewage plants and for graduate work in limnology. Although the medium for analysis is water, utilizes the instrumentation and techniques applicable to other areas of biology. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 437 Biological Investigation and Data Interpretation (A). Provides an introduction to experimental investigation in biology. Includes experimental design, hypothesis formulation and testing, and data interpretation. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 439 Conservation Biology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 303 or instructor's permission. Examines current theory and data from evolutionary biology, ecology, and genetics as they r elate to the conservation of biological diversity. Includes topics such as cause of extinction, habitat loss and fragmentation, design of nature reserves, landscape ecology, application of basic principles of population biology to species conservation, and restoration ecology. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 440 Herpetology. Prerequisites: BIO 201 and 202. The study of the form, function, ecology, and evolution of reptiles and amphibians. Topics include anatomy, physiology, mating systems, population and community ecology, and conservation biology of reptiles and amphibians. Lab and field experiences include the study of anatomy, identification techniques, and census methods. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 441-Biotechniques I-Tissue Culture (A). Prerequisites: BIO 431 and one additional three-credit 400-level biology course. Covers principles and techniques of mammalian and plant cell and tissue culture; determination of growth patterns in defined media; serial passage of established cultures; and standard techniques used in medical, industrial and agricultural research. Given first four weeks of semester only with eight, three-hour lab sessions. 1 Cr. Spring.

BIO 442-Biotechniques II-Ultracentrifugation and Restriction Analysis (A). Prerequisites: BIO 432, 433 and one additional three-credit 400-level biology course. Covers principles and experiments involving the isolation of DNA using CsCl ultra centrifugation techniques. Explores the theory and use of restriction endonucleases. Restriction analysis includes agrarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Given second four weeks of semester only with eight, three-hour lab sessions. 1 Cr. Spring.

BIO 443-Biotechniques III-Immunoassays (RIA/ELISA) (A). Prerequisites: BIO 201, 202, CHM 205, 206, and CHM 305. Covers principles of radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-ligand-sorbent-immunoassays (ELISA). Provides hands on learning of either/both methods and applying them to assay biological samples. Discussions of accuracy, precision and variability and limitations of the procedures. Given second four weeks of the semester only with 8 3-hour laboratory sessions. 1 Cr. Spring.

BIO 445 Histology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 202. Studies the microanatomy of animal tissue and organs with emphasis on functional correlations. Includes lab examinations of prepared slides and fresh materials, as well as normal and pathological tissues. 4 Cr. Spring.

BIO 451 Aquaculture (A). Prerequisite: BIO 303 or instructor's permission. Provides an applied biology experience in aquaculture: the controlled cultivation and harvest of aquatic organisms. Emphasizes construction, maintenance and operation of successful production systems. Allows students to examine the physical, chemical, and biological limitations to fin fish and shellfish production. Upon completion of the course, students should be able to rear fish and other aquatic organisms successfully in intensive and extensive culture systems. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 457 Marine Biology Bahamas (A). Cross-listed with ESC 457. A two-week, January intersession field experience in coral reef ecology on S an Salvador Island, The Bahamas. Allows students to study identification, behavior and ecology of marine organisms in five different coral reef habitats, and prepare a research report on the habitats and the behavior/ecology of one organism. 3 Cr.

BIO 459 Mammalogy (A). Prerequisites: BIO 201 and 202. The study of the form, function, ecology, and evolution of mammals. Topics include anatomy, physiology, origins, diet and feeding strategies, population and community ecology, and social systems of mammals. Laboratory and field exercises emphasize habitat selection and population biology of small mammals, anatomy, and classification. 4 Cr. Fall.

BIO 465 Physiological Ecology (A). Prerequisites: BIO 202; and CHM 205, 206. Explores the physiological attributes of animals in relation to the environment including: thermoregulation, water regulation, and biological clocks and rhythmicity. Emphasizes physical measurement of environmental factors, and the advantages of using both environmental and physiological data to solve problems. 4 Cr.

BIO 466 General Endocrinology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 202 or equivalent. Covers the morphology of endocrine glands; the relationship between the molecular structure of a hormone and its ability to regulate metabolism; the role of the hormones in growth, metabolic and reproductive processes; and various endocrine diseases. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 467 Biochemistry I (A). Cross-listed as CHM 467. Prerequisites: CHM 306; a college course in biology is strongly recommended. Studies proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and other biomolecules with an emphasis on buffers, structures, experimental methods, main energy production pathways and biosynthesis. Applies concepts and information to experimental data and deduction of structures, functional roles and mechanisms. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 468 Biochemistry II (A). Cross-listed as CHM 468. Prerequisite: BIO 467 or CHM 467. Provides a continuation of BIO 467 with topics such as metabolic pathways, human nutrition, chromosomes and genes, protein biosynthesis, cell walls, immunoglobulins, muscle contraction, cell motility, membrane transport and excitable membranes and sensory systems. Investigates experimental evidence for the structures and functions of biomolecules. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 470 Biochemistry Lab (A). Cross-listed as CHM 470. Prerequisite: BIO 467 or CHM 467; CHM 303 is helpful. Covers biochemical analyses, including preparation, separations and characterization of products from a variety of biological sources; and experiments with enzymes and experiments designed to measure changes inherent in the dynamics of living systems. 1 Cr. Fall.

BIO 477 Field Biology (A). Covers identification of major groups and common species of plants and animals; energy flow and ecological relationships; and field skills. 4 Cr. Summer.

BIO 481 & BIO 482. Medical Technology I & II (A). Provides training through Rochester General Hospital's School of Medical Technology. Several areas are taught under this name that include: Blood Bank, Biochemistry, Hematology, Microbiology, Urinalysis, Mechanisms of Disease, and Independent Research Project. For admission into this course, students must contact the Department Chair (Dr. L. Kline) or the Coordinator of Medical Technology (Dr. D. Smith) in Lennon Hall nine months prior to the course. BIO 481, 15 Cr. Fall; BIO 482, 15 Cr. Spring.

BIO 483 Aquatic Invertebrates (A). Prerequisites: BIO 419 and 421 or instructor's permission. Explores the importance of invertebrates in the ecosystem; the taxonomy of aquatic invertebrates including insects, crustacea, mites, leeches, and moluscs; the relationship between classification and identification; and the use of dichotomous keys, sampling equipment, preservation techniques and biological indices. 3 Cr. Spring.

BIO 484 Fish Ecology (A). Prerequisite: BIO 303 or instructor's permission. Explores fish ecology from the behavior of individuals through population dynamics and classification of fishes to the ordinal level. Relates anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of fishes to their ecology and how recruitment, growth, mortality, and environmental factors interact to influence fish production. BIO 490 is the complementary lab. 3 Cr. Fall.

BIO 487 Birds of New York (A). Prerequisite: BIO 111 or 202 or instructor's permission. Covers ecological relationships, avian aesthetics, ethological characteristics; evolutionary relationships among birds and their progenitors; techniques of study; skin preparation and use of museum resources; and the significance of avian studies in photoperiodicity, migration, disease and conservation. Includes field identification and optional skin preparation. 4 Cr. Summer.

BIO 488 Environmental Impact Analysis (A). Integrates a traditional field biology course with an environmental impact analysis approach. Presents students with an actual site development project (e.g. boat launching site) on or near Lake Ontario. Based on ecological theory, environmental analytical principles, aquatic/terrestrial sampling, and taxonomic skills learned in the course, allows student teams to conduct an environmental assessment of the proposed project and write an environmental impact statement. 6 Cr. Summer.

BIO 490 Fishery Techniques and Identification (A). Corequisite: BIO 484 or instructor's permission. Provides lab and field experience in fish collection, identification, anatomy, and fisher y techniques including netting, electrofishing and quantitativ e fishing analyses. Complementary lab to BIO 484. May be taken only once for credit. 2 Cr. Fall.

BIO 491 Biological Sciences Overseas Program (A). Prerequisite: Prior departmental approval. Requires students to attend classes in the biological sciences and/or related areas at the participating overseas university. 1-15 Cr.

BIO 492 Bioethics (A,I). Recommended: One college science course. Develops the student's ability to recognize and discuss bioethical issues in the fields of cellular and molecular biology, medicine, genetics, human and animal experimentation, as well as the environmental concerns of pollution, resource utilization, food availability, and population control. Brings to bear various classical and modern ethical positions on these issues. 3 Cr.

BIO 495 Topics in Biology I (A). To be defined by the instructor/sponsor in accordance with the specific topic to be covered that semester. Additional information may be obtained from the department office. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 498 Seminar in Biology (A). Requires students to research, organize, and present a seminar. Techniques of seminar speaking are fundamental. 1 Cr. Every Semester.

BIO 499 Independent Study (A). Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. To be defined in consultation with the instructor/sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Advisement prior to registration. Variable Credit. Every Semester.

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