February 21, 2013
Mr. Nguyen Tran
N-Nitrosamine Produced by Food Preservatives Induce DNA Strand Breakage
Abstract: Sodium nitrite which is commonly used in food preservation to stabilize taste and color and prevent the growth of bacteria Clostridium botulinum. In addition, sodium nitrite is a chemical precursor for production of N-Nitrosamines which have been identified as carcinogenic by producing diazonium ions that lead to DNA damage and strand breakage. In this study, gas chromatography was used to separate and detect N- Nitrosamines in sample meat, and the genotoxicity of N-Nitrosamine was studied by using the cultured human cell, TK6. The comet assay, which is in-corporates endo III and FPG enzymes, was used to evaluate base damage and strand breaks in DNA. The cytokinesis blocked micronucleus test was used to evaluate the chromosomal damage. The results reveal that high concentrations of NDMA produce measurable genotoxic effects.
Mr. Brendan Devlin
Characterization of Counterfeit Artesunate Anti-malarial Tablets using
Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy
Abstract: Malaria is an infectious, mosquito-borne disease of humans and animals caused by protists (microorganisms of the genus Plasmodium). Current efforts to combat Malaria are being compromised by the $75 billion/year counterfeit market that produces illegal and unsafe drugs. Recent research to detect counterfeit drugs has gained popularity with the development of several different analytical techniques and practices in the field. Several examples include: gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, infrared vibrational spectroscopic techniques, NMR, and scattering techniques have been studied to further understand the interactions between genuine anti-malarial drugs and the counterfeit signatures. Research being conducted by Ricci et al. utilizes Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared imaging (ATR-FTIR) to provide vibrational spectroscopic evidence on the composition of tablets and blister packs. The advantages that have arisen through the combination of SORS and ATR-FTIR imaging confirm great potential for the inclusion of these two methods in the analytical protocol for the ongoing investigation of counterfeit drugs.