Glossary of Terms Significant to the Human Resource
Management Function for the State University of New York
Following is a glossary of terms that are significant to the human resource
function. While many of the terms are specifically defined as they apply
to employment in the State University of New York or other employment in
the civil service of the State of New York, many relate to the human resource
function in general. A unique feature of this glossary is the inclusion,
in italics, of active verbs that could be used in job descriptions to differentiate
levels of duties and responsibilities.
An alphabetical index is provided to assist you in locating the reference
you seek. Also, you will note that the parenthetical notations often appearing
following a term are an attempt to identify the source for a definition:
(SUNY) refers to the Policies of the Board of Trustees; (NYS
CSL) refers to the Civil Service Law; (NYS Class & Comp) refers
to materials prepared by the Classification and Compensation section of
the Civil Service Department; (NYS Taylor Law) refers to the Public
Employees' Fair Employment Act; (Federal) refers to definitions
from federal government statutes, rules, regulations, and executive orders;
(NYS Payroll) refers to the NYS Payroll Manual prepared by the
Office of the State Comptroller; (NYS Pers Manual) refers to the
Personnel Manual prepared by the NYS Department of Civil Service; (NYS
Budget) refers to budget bulletins and other materials relating to
the budget process in State agencies; and (Contract) refers to
at least one of the collective bargaining agreements between the State
and the unions that represent university employees.
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- ACADEMIC EMPLOYEE (SUNY):
- an academic rank or qualified
academic rank employee in the Professional Services Negotiating
- ACADEMIC RANK (SUNY):
- rank held by those members of the professional staff having the title
of professor, associate professor, assistant professor, instructor,
including geographic full-time faculty members having such titles, and
rank held by members of the professional staff having the titles of
librarian, associate librarian, senior assistant librarian, and assistant
- ACADEMIC STAFF (SUNY):
- the staff comprised of those persons having academic rank or qualified
- ACADEMIC YEAR OBLIGATION (SUNY):
- an annual obligation of service for the academic year, not to exceed
- the correct use of delegated authority to meet a specific responsibility.
- ACRONYMS (SUNY/NYS):
- For a list of acronyms associated with the SUNY Human Resources function,
go to: Acronyms. Most of these acronyms also
are included in this glossary.
- ADA: (See Americans With Disabilities Act)
- manage or direct the execution of affairs.
- ADMINISTRATIVE SALARY PLAN (SUNY)
- SUNY Board of Trustees approved salary plan for Presidents of the
State-operated campuses, the Chancellor, Executive Vice Chancellor,
Senior Vice Chancellor and Provost.
- ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES UNIT (ASU) (NYS Taylor Law):
- ative support staff, currently represented by the Civil Service
Employees' Association, Inc. (CSEA). See related information at:
- ASU NU Info a negotiating
unit in NYS service composed of classified service employees,
primarily office and administrrmation
- to take up and practice as one's own.
- to recommend a course of action; offer an informed opinion based on
- ADVISORY ARBITRATION:
- a proceeding where an arbitrator issues a decision which is not
final and binding on the parties.
- AFFECTED CLASS:
- those groups of persons, and protected by anti-discrimination laws,
who because of past discrimination, may continue
to suffer the effects of such discrimination. Affected class status
may be determined by statistical analysis and/or court decision.
- a written declaration of facts made voluntarily under oath. This is
made without notice to an opposing party and without the opportunity
- AFFIRMATIVE ACTION:
- any action intended to correct effects of past discrimination,
to eliminate present discrimination, or to prevent discrimination for
- AFFIRMATIVE ACTION GROUPS:
- those persons identified by the federal and state laws to be specifically
protected from employment discrimination.
- AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PLAN:
- a statement of goals, timetables, and programs indicating how the
employer plans to move the current status to parity. Also, a document
required of government contractors under the regulations of the Office
of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP). The employer is
obliged to compare the internal distribution of minorities and females
to their incidence in the external labor market and to determine whether
or not the employer is at parity with the external labor market.
- AGE DISCRIMINATION and EMPLOYMENT ACT of 1967 (ADEA) as amended (Federal):
- Specifies it is unlawful for an employer to fail or refuse to hire
or to discharge an individual or otherwise discriminate
against an individual with respect to compensation, terms, conditions,
or privileges of employment, because of an individual's age. For more
information go to Age
- AGENCY FEE:
- a fee deducted from the salary of New York State employees who are
non-members of the employee organization chosen by their negotiating
unit, if any, to represent them for purposes of collective
bargaining. The fee deduction is equivalent to the dues deducted
for members. It is considered payment for services or benefits provided
to non-members of the employee organization as a result of collective
bargaining. See related information at: Agency
Fee Payroll Deduction.
- an individual born in, and a citizen of, a country other than the
country in which he or she is living.
- ALLOCATE (NYS Class & Comp):
- to assign a class to a particular salary grade in the salary schedule.
- ALTERNATE WORK SCHEDULE: (See Executive Order 68)
- AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (ASTD):
- a professional organization. For more information go to: American
Society for Training and Development.
- AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990 (ADA):
- the ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment,
programs and services provided by state and local governments, goods
and services provided by private companies, and in commercial facilities.
For more information go to: ADA
Information on the WEB.
- AMICUS CURIAE:
- a party not involved in a lawsuit but who has an interest in its outcome
and who submits arguments to the court in an effort to aid the court
in reaching its judgment.
- separate into elements and critically examine.
- a fixed amount of money payable periodically for life or for a fixed
number of years which has been bequeathed, donated, or purchased.
- a response by the person who is sued, or response to a question.
- ANTE (NYS Budget):
- Refers to the maximum expenditure which may be authorized. For positions,
the maximum amount which may be paid to an incumbent. (At not to exceed).
- foresee and deal with in advance.
- APPEAL (NYS Class & Comp) (NYS CSL):
- application to the Civil Service Commission to review a determination
of the Director of Classification and Compensation. Also includes application
to the Civil Service Commission to review decisions of the Department
of Civil Service on minimum qualifications, comparability of title for
examination, and test grades. Also, the act of a plaintiff who wishes
to test a Civil Service Commission decision in court under Article 78
of the Civil Practice Laws and Rules. Action moving a Step One grievance
decisions to Step Two, etc.
- the party who appeals a decision.
- APPENDIX A (SUNY):
- a list of professional services negotiating unit positions not eligible
for permanent appointment found at the end of Article XI in the SUNY
Policies of the Board of Trustees. In lieu of permanent appointments,
appointees to Appendix A titles must be given 5-year term appointments
after an initial 1 year probationary appointment.
- the act of requesting. Includes a request to the Director of Classification
and Compensation for a change in title and/or salary as provided by
the NYS Civil Service Law and other requests for review of administrative
actions of the Department of Civil Service. Also includes requests for
consideration for employment from candidates for positions and employee
requests for promotion. An Application Blank is the formal record of
a person's request to be employed.
- APPOINTING AUTHORITY or APPOINTING OFFICER (NYS CSL) (SUNY):
- the officer, commission or body having the power of appointment to
subordinate positions. In SUNY, each campus President is an appointing
- the act of placing a person in a position or office.
- APPOINTMENT YEAR (SUNY):
- unless the terms of appointment otherwise provide, the normal appointment
year shall be from September 1 to August 31, regardless of payroll mode;
provided however, that an academic year employee may be required to
commence her/his professional obligation at
a date reasonably prior to September 1 as may be necessitated by a college's
- give an expert opinion/judgment of worth or merit.
- accept as satisfactory; exercise final authority with regard to the
commitment of resources.
- something done capriciously or at pleasure; without adequate determining
- ARBITRATION (NYS Taylor Law):
- a procedure through which a third party neutral arbitrator examines
facts in a hearing and renders an award to settle a dispute. Sometimes
referred to as "Rights Arbitration" in contrast to "Interest Arbitration".
- an impartial person selected by the parties to a dispute who is empowered
to make a determination concerning the issues in dispute.
- make preparation for an event; put in proper order.
- ARTICLE 78 PROCEEDING:
- a proceeding brought in New York State Supreme Court for review of
governmental action pursuant to Article 78 of the Civil Practice Law
- collect or gather together in a predetermined order from various sources.
- specify or designate tasks or duties to be performed by others.
- undertake; take for granted.
- give confidence, make certain of.
- ASTD (Organization): (See: American Society for
Training and Development).
- ASU (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Administrative Services
- refers to the right a manager has to control the activities of subordinates.
- approve; empower through vested authority.
- BARGAINING AGENT:
- the employee organization chosen by employees in a negotiating
unit to have exclusive representation rights for them in collective
- BARGAINING UNIT: (See: Negotiating Unit)
- BASE ANNUAL SALARY:
- the base salary before the addition of overtime pay or of any temporary
or "emergency" increases approved for a limited period or purpose, or
any extra service compensation or additional stipend or pay for other
services such as service as department chair.
- BASIC WORKWEEK CLASSIFIED EMPLOYEES (NYS CSL):
- the basic workweek shall be 40 hours; provided, however, that where
a shorter workweek would not interfere with the proper performance of
government functions, an appointing authority may establish a basic
workweek of not less than 37 1/2 hours. (See Workweek)
- BLUE CROSS - BLUE SHIELD
- a health insurance provider. A major product is the managed care program
offered by the "Blue Choice" (HMO) plan. More information is available
at: Blue Cross - Blue Shield.
- BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATION - BFOQ or BOQ.
- a minimum qualification requirement needed as a prerequisite to being
able to do a particular job. BFOQs, if challenged, must be demonstrated
to be valid by the employer. The courts have interpreted BFOQs very
narrowly, especially with regard to sex. Each applicant must be treated
as an individual in comparing his or her skills to the skills required
to perform the job.
- a paper written by a lawyer to serve as a basis for his or her later
oral argument to the court. Its use is largely to inform the court of
the lawyer's argument, authorities on questions of law, and desired
interpretation of the case.
- financial statement of a plan.
- BUDGET CERTIFICATE (NYS Payroll): (See Certificate
- BUMP (NYS CSL):
- the displacement of one classified service employee by another who
is being laid off and has greater seniority and is serving in the next
higher level direct line title in the layoff unit.
- BURDEN OF PROOF:
- the responsibility for demonstrating to the requisite degree the truth
of one's claim; the affirmative duty of proving or disapproving the
claim at issue.
- BUSINESS NECESSITY:
- Supreme Court's touchstone for determining lawfulness under Title
VII of a discriminatory effect. Must be
essential to the safe and efficient operation of a business. Generally
involves whether the employer would be committed to additional costs
or a safety hazard if the discriminatory practice were abandoned. Savings
gained by shorter training periods, preserving or improving an employer's
image, customer or co-worker preferences, superior or inferior ability
to perform non-essential aspects of a job, or need to maintain harmony
or decorum at the place of business do NOT qualify as business necessities.
- CAFETERIA PLAN:
- a form of benefit compensation in which employees may choose between
two or more taxable or non-taxable benefits (i.e., life insurance, health
insurance, tax deferred annuities, etc.).
- CALENDAR YEAR OBLIGATION (SUNY):
- an annual obligation of service for a full year, (i.e., 12 months).
- an inquiry as to whether an eligible candidate for a classified service
vacancy would be willing to accept appointment, if offered.
- subject to, led by, or indicative of a sudden, unpredictable change
without apparent or adequate motive.
- a sequence of jobs held during a person's work life.
- CAREER LADDER:
- composed of jobs requiring related and increasingly more responsible
duties, through which employees advance by experience, in-service training,
- CASUAL EMPLOYEE (SUNY):
- unclassified service employee whose employment relationship is so
limited as not to justify assignment to a negotiating
- upper level management retains major decision making authority, creating
all major policies and programs, and preserving the authority to make
- Chief Executive Officer.
- CERT (NYS Payroll): (See Certificate of Approval)
- Budget Certificate.
- CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL (NYS Payroll):
- a listing, ordered by payroll line item number, of positions and salaries
approved by the NYS Division of Budget for funding from a NYS appropriation
for personal service regular expenditures. The NYS Office of the State
Comptroller cannot pay more on a line item than the amount which is
authorized on the certificate of approval. Also known as Schedule of
- CERTIFICATION (NYS Budget), (NYS CSL), or (NYS Taylor Law):
- May refer to DOB certifying positions and the Department of Civil
certifying appointment to the payroll. May also refer to the Public
Employment Relations Board's (PERB) certifying an employee organization
as the exclusive representative for a unit of employees.
- a condition created when an organization changes the rules in response
to every new situation.
- CHARGING PARTY:
- person alleging that he or she is aggrieved as the result of an unlawful
- CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER (SUNY):
- the head of a college or contract college whether called president,
dean, provost, director, or otherwise. (CAO)
- CIVIL SERVICE (NYS CSL):
- encompasses all offices and employments in the service of the State
or any of its civil divisions, except offices and employments in the
Division of Military and Naval Affairs. The Civil Service is divided
into the unclassified and classified
- CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION (NYS CSL):
- considered the "watchdog" of the New York State merit system, the
Civil Service Commission is composed of three members appointed by the
Governor. From the three, one is appointed by the Governor to serve
as President. The President is the administrative head of the Department
of Civil Service. The Commission promulgates rules, hears appeals,
and conducts investigations.
- CIVIL SERVICE LAW (NYS CSL):
- law under which NYS employment in the classified service is governed. For
a summary of the law go to: Civil Service
- CIVIL SERVICE RULES (NYS CSL):
- the rules of the Civil Service Commission implement the Civil Service
Law, provide procedures and other details for carrying out the law,
and have the force of law themselves.
- CLASS or CLASS OF POSITIONS (NYS Class & Comp):
- one or more positions sufficiently similar in respect to duties and
responsibilities that the same title may be used to designate each position
in the group, the same salary may be equitably applied, the same qualifications
required, and the same examination used to select qualified employees.
- CLASS ACTION:
- a lawsuit or grievance initiated by one or more member(s) of a larger
group of persons on behalf of all the members of the group.
- CLASSIFIED SERVICE (NYS CSL):
- the classified service shall comprise all offices and positions not
included in the unclassified service. The offices
and positions in the classified service shall be divided into four classes,
to be designated as the exempt class, the non-competitive
class, the labor class, and the competitive
- CLASSIFY (NYS Class & Comp):
- to group positions according to their duties and responsibilities
and assign a class title.
- CLASS SPECIFICATION: (See Specification)
- CLASS TITLE: (See Title)
- gain approval of others.
- COBRA (Federal): (See: Consolidated Omnibus Budget
Reconciliation Act of 1985 (Federal).
- work jointly with, cooperate with others.
- gather or amass.
- COLLECTIVE BARGAINING (NYS Taylor Law):
- statutory mechanism for employees to participate collectively in the
determination of their terms and conditions of employment through meetings
between their elected representatives and their employer at which their
terms and conditions of employment are negotiated. Also used to resolve
- COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT:
- An agreement reached through collective negotiations between management
and representatives of employee unions. Go to: Links
to Collective Bargaining Agreements to view current agreements.
- COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION (CUPA):
- an organization that supports personnel administration in higher education.
For more information go to: College
and University Personnel Association.
- COLLEGE YEAR OBLIGATION (SUNY):
- an annual obligation of service for any period less than the full
year (for professional employees).
- COMPARABLE WORTH:
- the principle that jobs can be compared which
may be dissimilar in nature but equal or equivalent in terms of skill,
effort, responsibility, and working conditions; used to achieve salary
equity; popularly tied to sex discrimination.
- remuneration for services rendered or for damages incurred. Includes
pay, incentives, and benefits provided employees.
- capable of doing a certain thing; having capacity to understand, and
- COMPETITIVE CLASS (NYS CLS):
- the competitive class shall include all positions for which it is
practicable to determine the merit and fitness of applicants by competitive
examination. See: Classified
Service Competitive Examination Announcements for information about
- put together information, collect from other documents.
- an informal grievance; a gripe; a non-contract dispute; the first
paper filed by a plaintiff.
- within statutory limits and court interpretations, acts by an employer
to bring practices into line with civil rights legislation through training
managers, supervisors and employees; changing policies, procedures;
altering compensation levels; making physical plant changes; changing
working hours; etc.
- COMPLIANCE AGENCIES:
- organizations established under the Office of Federal Contract Compliance
as internal sub-units of major government departments or agencies, including,
for example, the Department of Labor, Department of Commerce, the Department
of Defense. They are charged with the administration of Executive Order
11246, Revised Orders No. 4 and No. 14, and with the collection and
analysis of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Reports and Affirmative
Action Plans. Their powers of enforcement include the ability to deny
government business to contractors found in violation. For more information
go to: Office
of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
- COMPRESSED WORKWEEK:
- work schedules with fewer than five workdays a week.
- COMPULSORY ARBITRATION:
- when the law authorizes either party or an outside agency to impose
a settlement after an arbitration hearing.
- a settlement of a dispute through discussion rather than formal hearings
and/or a trial. Sometimes called mediation.
Used by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), PERB, and Division
of Human Rights, among others.
- agree with a position, statement, action, or opinion.
- to run together, in conjunction with; to exist together.
- carry on; direct the execution of.
- consult with others to compare views.
- CONFIDENTIAL (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Management/Confidential).
- CONSENT DECREE:
- by comparison, the judicial counterpart to conciliation; a formal
court document approved by a judge.
- bring together.
- CONSOLIDATED OMNIBUS BUDGET RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1985 (COBRA) (Federal):
- this law requires that most employers sponsoring group health plans
offer employees and their families the opportunity for a temporary extension
of health care and union Employee Benefit Fund coverage called "continuation
coverage" at group rates in certain instances where coverage under the
program would otherwise end.
- seek the advice of others.
- CONTINGENT PERMANENT (NYS CSL):
- an appointment, transfer, or reinstatement to a temporarily vacant
position of a person meeting all merit and fitness requirements for
such appointment. Except in the case of the return of a prior incumbent,
contingent permanent appointees have all rights and benefits of permanent
- CONTINUING APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
- an appointment to a position of academic rank
which shall not be affected by changes in such rank and shall continue
until resignation, retirement, or termination. (See: Tenure).
- CONTRACTOR OR EMPLOYEE (Federal): Employee/Contractor
- CONTRIBUTORY PENSION PLAN:
- the employee and employer share the cost of pension benefits.
- measure, interpret, and evaluate actions for conformance with plans
and/ or desired results.
- staying with the plan making sure the objectives are met and changing
the plan as necessary.
- regulate, adjust or combine the actions of others to attain harmony.
- the relationships between various positions within an organization.
Includes reporting and supervisory relationships per organization chart.
- establish a reciprocal relationship.
- communicate in writing with.
- a private supervisory conference between a supervisor and a subordinate
employee at which the employee's performance deficiencies are discussed.
The motivation for such counseling sessions is to improve the employee's
performance and eliminate the performance deficiencies. For more information
about counseling go to: Counseling
- COUNSELING MEMORANDUM:
- a written follow-up to an employee following counseling which
confirms the reason for the counseling, a summary of the effect of the
employee's deficiencies, a summary of the employee's response to the
counseling, and the corrective actions expected.
- CUPA (Organization): (See: College and University
- facts and figures.
- significant decision making authority is delegated throughout the
organization to lower management levels.
- a determination or judgment. The result of an administrative or judicial
review. In judicial cases, possible results include dismissal of charges,
injunction, and awards for damages or punishment.
- DEDUCTION: (See: Payroll Deduction).
- the person(s) or organization(s) being sued.
- DEFINED BENEFIT PLAN:
- a retirement program under which the retirement benefit to be paid
is some percentage of final salary rather than simply the return on
investment of the retirement fund. See related information about retirement
programs available for SUNY employees at: Retirement
- DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN:
- a retirement program under which an employee contributes a percentage
of salary and the return on investment determines the retirement benefit.
See related information about retirement programs available for SUNY
employees at: Retirement Benefits.
- commission another to perform tasks or duties that may carry specific
degrees of accountability. Ideally authority should be passed to the
lowest level within the organization capable of making an effective
- the process of combining jobs into work units and grouping similar
- DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL SERVICE (NYS CSL):
- in New York State, it is the State's primary personnel management
arm, responsible for the classification and allocation of classified
service State positions, the recruitment and selection of candidates
for State classified service employment, and the development and maintenance
of statewide agency personnel systems. For more information go to: NYS
Department of Civil Service
- DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (NYS):
- Go to: NYS Department
- DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION AND FINANCE (NYS):
- visit this site at: NYS Tax
- a written declaration of facts made voluntarily out of court but under
oath in the presence of the opposing party, who may conduct cross-examination
in front of a court reporter.
- conceive, create, and execute according to plan.
- DESK AUDIT (NYS Class & Comp):
- a review and discussion of the duties and responsibilities of a position
made at an employee's desk or other regular place of work.
- resolve; fix conclusively or authoritatively.
- disclose, discover, perfect or unfold a plan or idea.
- come up with something new.
- Dictionary of Occupational Titles (Federal):
- a dictionary of titles and descriptive information about their classification
created and maintained by the federal government.
- guide operations through the establishment of objectives, policies,
rules, practices, methods, and standards.
- DIRECT DEPOSIT OF PAYROLL:
- making direct deposit of payroll to employee bank accounts via electronic
transfer rather than writing pay checks. For more information go to:
- state of not being fully capable of performing all essential functions
whether mental or physical.
- termination of a person's employment by his or her employer.
- action taken against an employee for misconduct or incompetence when other
efforts (i.e., counseling) fail or when a single incident is so severe as
to warrant it. In NYS service, disciplinary penalties can only be imposed
after an employee has been formally charged and has exhausted his/her appeal
rights. Disciplinary penalties range from official reprimands, suspension
without pay, fines, loss of accrued leave credits, and reduction in grade,
to dismissal from service. Except for cases of extreme misconduct, discipline,
where required, should be progressive and consistent. An employee should be
notified that a problem exists and given a chance to improve before being
disciplined. For more information about discipline go to: Discipline.
- the legal term for the investigation phase after a complaint is filed
and the defendant has answered.
- the act of distinguishing between and among different things. It is
also a charge brought by people alleging the operation of prejudice.
When discrimination is done in a way that disadvantages individuals
because of accident of birth or condition, it is unlawful. Thus discrimination
may also be a conclusion of the courts that plaintiffs have shown an
adverse impact with regard to the employment of protected class persons
and employers have failed to demonstrate business
- exchange views for the purpose of arriving at a conclusion.
- DISPARATE EFFECT or DISPARATE IMPACT:
- the result of an employment policy, practice, or procedure that, in
application, has less favorable consequences for an affirmative
action group than for the dominant group.
- get rid of.
- spread or disperse information.
- deliver to proper destinations.
- DISTRIBUTION RATE:
- the degree (percentage) to which a given protected
class is employed in the various job titles, job classes, and other
units within the employing organization, and the degree to which individuals
of a given protected class are involved in various employment transactions
(for example, applications for employment, hiring, placement, promotion,
- DIVISION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (NYS):
- Go to: NYS Division of Human Rights
- DOT (Federal): Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
- prepare papers or documents in preliminary form.
- DRY PROMOTION:
- refers to an increase in responsibility and status without an increase
- DUES CHECKOFF:
- the privilege granted to the bargaining agent to have exclusive payroll
deduction of membership dues.
- several tasks which are related by some sequence of events.
- Employee Assistance Program. Programs designed with the goal of assisting
employees and their family members to solve personal and work related
problems which affect job performance.
- EARMARK (NYS Class & Comp):
- the term used when a position has been designated for restudy when
vacant to determine its proper classification before being refilled.
- concerned with increasing our general knowledge, understanding, and
background. (See training) for contrast.
- EEO: (See: Equal Employment Opportunity)
- EEOC (Federal): (See: Equal Employment Opportunity
- ELIGIBLE LIST (NYS CSL):
- a certified list of candidates for a competitive title ranked in order
of their respective final examination ratings, including seniority and
- EMPIRE PLAN (NYS Health Insurance Option)
- a health insurance option for New York State employees. For more information
go to: The Empire
- EMPLOYEE (Federal):
- person working for another person or an organization for compensation. In
certain circumstances it is difficult to determine whether a person is an
employee or an independent contractor. As a guide, see Contractor
or Employee to see 20 factors provided by the Internal
Revenue Service to assist employers in making this interpretation.
- EMPLOYEE ORGANIZATION NYS Taylor Law):
- means an organization of any kind having as its primary purpose the
improvement of terms and conditions of employment of public employees.
- EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 (Federal):
- for information, go to: EPPA
Employee Polygraph Protection Act
- EMPLOYMENT PARITY:
- when the proportion of affirmative action groups
in the external labor market is equivalent to their proportion in the
company work force without reference to classification.
- EMPLOYMENT PROCESS:
- under Title VII, the employment process includes recruitment, application
flow, hiring, job placement, compensation, promotion, transfer, termination,
shift assignments, geographical and departmental assignments, and all
other such activities.
- EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (Federal) (ERISA):
- Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Does not apply directly
to SUNY or public, as opposed to private, employers For more information,
go to: ERISA
- EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM (NYS):
- a defined benefit retirement program for NYS and NYS municipal employees.
For more information go to: Employees'
- EPPA (Federal): (See: Employee Polygraph Protection
- support or recommend.
- ERS (NYS): See: Employees' Retirement System
- EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY.
- civil rights requirement for all citizens to have equal opportunity
- EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION (EEOC) (Federal):
- federal agency responsible for administration of several statutes
which prohibit discrimination; has power to subpoena witnesses, issue
guidelines that have the force of law, render decisions, provide technical
assistance to employers, provide legal assistance to complainants, etc.
For more information go to: U.S. Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission
- EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963 (Federal):
- makes it unlawful to pay wages to members of one sex at a rate lower
than paid to members of the other sex for equal jobs that require equal
skill, effort, and responsibility. Jobs must be substantially equal
based on job content.
- ERISA (Federal): (See Employee Retirement Income
Security Act of 1974).
- bring into existence.
- forecast future requirements or happenings.
- ETHICS (NYS)
- usually a reference to New York State Ethics Commission which was
established by the Public Officers' Law. Go to: NYS
Ethics Commission for more information.
- ETHNIC CATEGORIES (Federal):
- American Indian or Alaskan Native; a person having origins
in any of the original peoples of North America who maintains cultural
identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition;
- Asian or Pacific Islander a person having origins in any
of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian
Sub-continent, or the Pacific Islands;
- Black a person, not of Hispanic origin, having origins
in any of the black racial groups of Africa;
- Hispanic a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central
or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless
of race; or
- White a person, not of Hispanic origin, having origins
in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle
- determine or fix the value of. See Performance
Evaluation for information about employee evaluations.
- put into effect or carry out.
- EXECUTIVE ORDER 6:
- The New York State executive order giving the New York State Civil
Service Commission President responsibility to enforce the State's policy
of insuring full and equal employment opportunities for minorities,
women, the disabled and Vietnam-era veterans. State agencies are required
to submit written affirmative action plans to the President.
- EXECUTIVE ORDER 68:
- New York State executive order which authorized and encourages State
agencies to establish alternate work schedules (i.e., flextime, 4 day
workweek, etc.). Procedural guidelines for submitting alternative work
schedule proposals are contained in Budget Bulletin G-1008, 5/1/78.
- EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 (Federal):
- requires affirmative action by government
contractors. For more information go to: Executive
- EXEMPT CLASS (NYS CLS):
- the following offices and positions shall be in the exempt class:
(a) one secretary of each state department or division, temporary state
commission or other state office; authorized by law to appoint a secretary;
(b) the deputies of principal executive officers; (c) one secretary
of each municipal board or commission; (d) one clerk and one deputy
clerk if authorized by law, of each court; (e) all other subordinate
offices or positions for the filling of which competitive or non-competitive
examination may be found to be not practicable. (No office of position
shall be deemed to be in the exempt class unless it is specifically
named in such class in the civil service rules).
- EXEMPT EMPLOYEES (Federal):
- employees in jobs that are purely management, administrative, or professional
that perform without close supervision and consequently, they are exempt
from coverage under the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Rules regarding overtime and wages do not apply.
- to put into action, practice, or use; to make use of privileges or
powers; to exert.
- accelerate the process or progress of.
- EXPERT WITNESS:
- an individual qualified by credentials to give opinion testimony.
Although this term has to be limited to a specific application, generally,
in test validation at least, a master's degree in psychology and experience
in the field is required.
- EXTERNAL LABOR AREA:
- the geographic area from which an employer may reasonably be expected
to recruit new workers. In a compliance sense, this total labor market
has sub-markets within it, comprised of persons with the requisite skills,
experience, etc. to fill given jobs.
- EXTERNAL LABOR MARKET:
- the civilian work force within an external labor area.
- EXTRA LONGEVITY RATE (NYS Class & Comp):
- salary resulting from the addition of two extra increments provided
to employees who have rendered continuous and satisfactory service for
ten years after having attained the normal maximum pay of their salary
- EXTRA SERVICE (NYS Payroll):
- work performed by an employee in a payroll agency other than the payroll
agency to which the employee is assigned regularly. See:
- a formalized procedure in which a third party examines the cause and
status of a dispute through oral and/or written presentation.
- FACTOR COMPARISON:
- a method of evaluating jobs on a systematic basis by comparing key
jobs with each other on a pre-determined number of factors so that each
key job is ranked in its relative order of importance on each factor.
Factor values are determined by apportioning the current rate being
paid for the job among the various factors. Ratings for all other jobs
are determined by comparison with the key jobs on each factor; the sum
of the factor values awarded is the job rate.
- FACTOR POINT:
- a quantitative method of evaluating jobs or groupings of jobs on a
systematic basis using a pre-determined number of factors which are
divided into a number of defined levels or degrees, each of which is
assigned a value expressed in points. The sum of all the points awarded
to the job determines its relative value among the others being evaluated.
- FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT of 1938 (Federal):
- law enacted to establish a minimum wage, to limit work hours, and
to discourage oppressive child labor. Referred to as the Wage Hour Act
because it ensures fair treatment of employees with respect to wages
and hours. Act defines exempt and nonexempt employees. For more information
- FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (Federal)
- Family Medical Leave Act. For more information, go to:
- FINANCIAL EXIGENCY:
- an imminent financial crisis which threatens the survival of the institution
as a whole and which cannot be alleviated by less drastic means than
- FINDINGS OF FACT:
- decision of a judge, jury, hearing officer, or hearing body on issues
of fact in a dispute.
- FLEXIBLE COMPENSATION/BENEFIT SYSTEM:
- one in which each employee has a choice in the form of all or a portion
of his/ her compensation package.
- FLEXIBILITY LEGISLATION:
- Refers to a 1986 act of the NYS Legislature which granted SUNY statutory
authority, primarily fiscal, to exercise greater independence than other
- allows employees to follow different schedules of work each day of
- FLSA (Federal): (See: Fair Labor Standards Act
- FMLA (Federal): (See: Family Medical Leave Act).
- develop or devise.
- FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (Federal):
- establishes that any person has the right to request access to federal
agency records or information. For more information go to: Freedom
- Full Time Equivalent. An accounting term used to equate an employee
or the total number of employees to a full time equivalent. For example,
a part time employee who works one half of the time required of a full
time employee would be counted as 1/2 FTE. (The total number of employees,
headcount, will always be more than the total FTE if there are part
time employees in the workforce).
- work than can be distinguished from other work. The kind of action
or activity proper to a person, employee, organizational unit, or institution.
The primary purpose of a position within an organization.
- provide with what is needed; supply.
- GED: (See: General Education Diploma).
- GENERAL EDUCATION DIPLOMA:
- General Educational Diploma - the GED is the high school equivalency
certificate, generally recognized as equal to a high school diploma
for all practical purposes.
- GENERAL INCREASE (NYS Class & Comp):
- a salary adjustment which requires the permanent or temporary revision
of the salary schedule specified in Section 130 of the Civil Service
Law, which governs the pay of most employees. Such an increase may be
granted only by action of the Legislature with the approval of the Governor.
Generally, a similar adjustment is provided for those employees compensated
under other schedules or by some other method.
- GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENTIAL (NYS Payroll):
- additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which
may be authorized by the Director of Classification and Compensation
subject to approval by the Director of the Budget. The pay differential
may be prescribed for those employees in the same or related occupations
who are employed in a particular geographic area or location.
- GEOGRAPHIC FULL-TIME FACULTY MEMBER (SUNY):
- a person serving on the faculty of a medical center who is not employed
on a full-time basis for the purpose of fixing compensation payable
by the State but all of whose professional services and activities are
conducted at the medical center or its affiliated hospitals and are
available to the State on a full-time basis for clinical and instructional
- good faith quantitative objectives an employer voluntarily sets as
the minimum progress that can be achieved within a certain time period
through all-out efforts at outreach recruitment, validating selection
criteria, creation of trainee positions, career ladders, etc. Setting
goals and objectives are considered proper and legal responses to underutilization
of minority groups by the various federal agencies.
- GOER (NYS): (See: Governor's Office of Employee
- GOOD CAUSE:
- substantial or legally sufficient reason for doing something.
- GOOD FAITH:
- having no intention to seek an unfair advantage or to defraud another
party; making an honest and sincere effort to fulfill obligations.
- GOVERNOR'S OFFICE OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONS:
- responsible for negotiating State-wide labor agreements and seeing
that they are properly administered. Click here: GOER
for more information.
- GROUP OF CLASSES (NYS Class & Comp):
- two or more closely related classes having a common basis of duties,
responsibilities, and qualification requirements but differing in some
particular, such as the nature of specialization, which is essential
from the standpoint of recruitment and selection and requires that each
class in the group be treated individually. Such classes have the same
basic title but are distinguished by a parenthetic
- HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED:
- those without jobs whose lack of useful job skills results in extended
periods without employment.
- HEALTH INSURANCE (NYS):
- See: Health Insurance
- HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
- a law that protects people from loss of health insurance. For more
information go to: Health
- HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 1996 (HIPAA)(Federal):
- created changes to COBRA. For more information
go to: HIPAA.
- HIGHER MINIMUM (NYS Class & Comp):
- a salary step above the normal minimum of a salary range, authorized
by the Director of Classification and Compensation, used temporarily
to recruit personnel in specific instances where the Director has determined
that it is impracticable to recruit at the minimum salary.
- HIPAA (Federal): (See: Health Insurance Portability
and Accountability Act.
- HIRING RATE STUDY (NYS Class & Comp):
- an annual study of hiring rates paid for selected beginning level
positions by large manufacturing and non-manufacturing employers throughout
New York State. Has been conducted among the same employers each year
since 1951 as one basis for comparison of New York State rates with
those paid elsewhere.
- HOLIDAY PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
- additional compensation for time worked by an employee during regularly
scheduled hours on a date observed as a holiday by the State.
- HOOK: (See Parenthetic)
- I-9 FORM (Federal:
- form required of all appointees to verify their U.S. citizenship,
or if they are aliens, their eligibility for employment in accordance
with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1986. See: I-9
requirements for more information.
- IHRIM (Organization): See: International Association
for Human Resources Information Management.
- IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION ACT OF 1986 (Federal):
- for information go to: INA Immigration
and Naturalization Act
- IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE (Federal):
- for information about the INS, go to: Immigration
and Naturalization Service.
- a point in negotiations where the parties appear to be unable to reach
- carry out; execute a plan or program.
- make something better.
- INA (Federal): (See: Immigration and Naturalization
- a part of compensation that recognizes the results of an employee's
efforts. Reward designed to encourage performance and productivity.
- INCIDENCE RATE:
- a measurement of the degree to which a specific protected class is
involved in any of the various steps of the employment process. If,
out of a group of 100 black males, twenty-five are promoted, the incidence
rate is 25 percent. As a measure of compliance, the incidence rate is
compared with the degree to which the specific protected class is represented
in the external labor market.
- INCONVENIENCE PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
- additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which
is authorized for employees who are required to work four or more hours
between 6:00 P.M. and 6:00 A.M. in their regular tour of duty.
- INCREASED MINIMUM: (See Higher Minimum)
- INCREMENT (NYS Class & Comp):
- an established salary increase between steps of a given salary grade,
marking a steady progression from the minimum of the grade to the maximum.
- data (facts and figures), organized so that they are useful to the
- start or introduce.
- may either require that a certain practice be stopped or that something
be done in the future; orders other actions, such as relief, to affected
- critically examine for suitability.
- INS (Federal): (See: Immigration and Naturalization
- INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES UNIT (ISU) (NYS Taylor Law):
- a negotiation unit in NY State service composed
mostly of those classified service employees responsible for providing
therapeutic and custodial care in the State's institutions, currently
represented by the Civil Service Employees' Association, Inc. (CSEA).
See related information at:
- the intentional and willful refusal to accept the valid authority
of a supervisor ... the refusal to act on a direct order.
- INTERNAL CONTROLS:
- for a definition of internal controls and a review of some of the policies
and procedures that make up SUNY's internal control system go to: Internal
- INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)(Federal):
- agency of the federal government that is responsible for the administration
of tax statutes and the collection of taxes. For more information, go
- INTEREST ARBITRATION(NYS Taylor Law):
- involves use of an arbitrator to resolve an impasse in contract negotiations.
- INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
- an association of professionals involved in managing human resource
information. For more information go to: International
Association of HRIM.
- INTERNATIONAL PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (IPMA):
- a professional organization. For more information go to: International
Personnel Management Association.
- explain something to others.
- written questions drawn up and served on an opposing party with a
prescribed time period to answer. The party must then serve answers
to the questions under oath. Sometimes used in the deposition procedure.
- study through close examination or systematic inquiry.
- IPMA (Organization): (See: International Personnel
- IRS (Federal): If you really don't know, go to: Internal
- put forth or distribute officially.
- ISU (NYS Taylor Law): (See Institutional Services
- ITEM NUMBER (NYS Budget): (See: Line Item Number)
- one or more positions within an organization. A job constitutes the
smallest unit of the organizational structure into which the activities
of the enterprise can be divided.
- JOB AUDIT: (See Desk Audit)
- JOB DESCRIPTION:
- a written summary of tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.
- JOB DESIGN:
- consideration of the content, functions, and relationships of jobs
directed toward the accomplishment of organizational purposes and satisfaction
of the personal needs of individual job holders.
- JOB ENLARGEMENT:
- increases the tasks performed and tries to eliminate boredom.
- JOB ENRICHMENT:
- program designed to increase worker satisfaction derived from the
- JOB EVALUATION:
- the systematic determination of the relative worth of jobs within
the organization, which results in a pay system within the organization.
- JOB SHARING:
- dividing full time jobs into two or more positions often without particular
regard for how the full time job is divided.
- JOB SPECIFICATION:
- the minimum skills, education, and experience necessary for an individual
to perform a job.
- JOB SPLITTING:
- dividing the tasks of a single job into two entirely separate part
- JOB SUMMARY:
- one to three statements which describe the essence of the job.
- JURISDICTIONAL CLASSIFICATION (NYS CSL):
- means the assignment of positions in the classified service to the
competitive, non-competitive, exempt, or labor classes.
- JURY TRIAL:
- more formal than a bench trial; a jury hears the case.
- KEY RESULT AREA:
- a distinct and important function in the operation of an organization.
- LABOR CLASS (NYS CSL):
- the labor class shall comprise all unskilled laborers in the service
of the state and each of its civil divisions except those whose positions
can be examined for competitively.
- a layoff separates surplus employees from the payroll.
- LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM (NYS):
- See: Leave
- LINE AUTHORITY:
- empowers the supervisor with the right to command subordinates.
- LINE FUNCTION:
- any function that is vital and contributes directly toward the accomplishment
of the major organizational objective.
- LINE ITEM NUMBER (NYS PAYROLL):
- the unique number assigned to a position to identify
it for payroll, accounting, and budget certificate
- a judicial controversy; lawsuits.
- LOCATION PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
- additional compensation granted to an employee whose principal place
of employment or official station is located in the city of New York
or in the county of Rockland, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk or Monroe.
- LONGEVITY RATE (NYS Class & Comp):
- salary resulting from the addition of one extra increment provided
to employees who have rendered continuous and satisfactory service for
five years after having attained the normal maximum pay of their salary
- LOST TIME (NYS PAYROLL):
- employee absence not covered by allowable leave credits results in
a lost-time pay deduction.
- keep in an existing/current state.
- MAKING WHOLE:
- award of back pay employees would have received but for the effects
of unlawful practice.
- accomplishing the objectives of the organization through assigned
- MANAGEMENT/CONFIDENTIAL (NYS TAYLOR LAW):
- persons designated by PERB as managerial or
confidential are excluded from coverage of the Taylor Law. Such persons
are not eligible to be represented by an employee organization for the
purpose of collective negotiations. They cannot belong to or hold office
in an employee organization that represents or seeks to represent public
employees employed by the public employer. Criteria for designation
as managerial are:
- formulates policy;
- may reasonably be required on behalf of the employer to assist
directly in preparation for and conduct of collective negotiations;
- has a major role in administration of agreements or in personnel
administration not routine or clerical and requiring exercise of
independent judgment. See related information at:
Confidential employees assist or act in confidential capacity
to managerial persons who have a labor relations responsibility. See
related information at:
- proactive, rather than reactive, people who are responsible for planning
- an order issued by a court to a private or municipal corporation;
an executive, judicial, or administrative officer; or to an inferior
court commanding the performance of a particular act with the responsibility
of the latter party.
- M/C: (See Management/Confidential)
- the intercession of a neutral into a dispute for the purpose of aiding
the parties to come to an agreement. The mediator serves as a catalyst,
as well as a liaison between the parties, to stimulate both sides toward
- MEDICARE (Federal):
- medicare provides health insurance to people age 65 and over and those
who have permanent kidney failure and certain people with disabilities.
For more information go to: Medicare.
- MENTAL HEALTH PARITY ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
- a new law that creates new demands on HMOs and other health insurance
programs that include mental health benefits. For more information go
Health Parity Act.
- determined by job performance and employee potential for development.
- MERIT SYSTEM:
- a system which attempts to match people with jobs based upon the merit,
qualifications, and fitness of the people to perform the tasks, duties,
responsibilities, and functions of the organization. To the extent possible,
merit and fitness are determined by competitive examination.
- MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS (NYS Class & Comp):
- education, training, and/or experience requirements denoting the minimum
standards that all candidates are required to possess to give reasonable
assurance that they can perform satisfactorily.
- MINIMUM WAGE (Federal):
- the minimum hourly rate an employee may be paid for employment in
the United States by federal statute. For more information go to: Minimum
Wage; also, for more history of the minimum wage click here.
- watch, observe, or check for a specific purpose.
- NACUBO (Organization): (See National Assocition
of College and University Business Officers).
- NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS OFFICERS (NACUBO):
- a professional organization of college/university business officers.
For more information go to: National
Association of College and University Business Officers.
- NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE (NCQA):
- a professional organization that evaluates and accredits managed care
plans including HMOs. For more information or to check the rating for
a particular managed care plan go to: National
Committee for Quality Assurance.
- NCQA (Organization): (See National Committee for
- confer with others with an eye to reaching agreement.
- NEGOTIATING UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
- a negotiating unit is the grouping of employees for the purpose of
collective negotiations. When it is agreed or determined which employees
shall make up a unit, the employees then select the employee organization
they want to represent them in negotiations. In New York State the groupings
are usually determined by, the Public Employees' Relations
Board, on the basis of job class.
- NEWBORNS AND MOTHERS' HEALTH PROTECTION ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
- a new law that, among other things, regulates the period of hospital
stay for newborns and mothers. For more information, go to: Newborns
and Mothers Health Protection.
- NEW YORK STATE:
- links to New York State governmental agencies and departments may
be found at: New
- NON-COMPETITIVE CLASS (NYS CSL):
- the non-competitive class shall include all positions that are not
in the exempt or the labor class and for which it is found by the commission
having jurisdiction to be not practicable to ascertain the merit and
fitness of applicants by competitive examination.
- NON-CONTRIBUTORY PENSION PLAN:
- pension plan financed entirely by employer.
- NON-STATUTORY OR NS (NYS Class & Comp):
- designates a position, the salary of which is not fixed by statute
but is established by the Director of the Division of Budget.
- NOTICE REQUIREMENTS (SUNY):
- professional staff appointed to term appointments in SUNY have to
be given appropriate advance notice if their term appointments are not
going to be renewed. For specific policy requirements go to: Notice
- make known to.
- NS: (See Non-statutory)
- similar to goals, a good faith effort to meet numerical goals through
modifications in employment procedures and practice. Goals and objectives
are set after careful external and internal labor analysis.
- OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (Federal):
- a federal act that sets and regulates health and safety standards
for the work place. For more information go to:
- OCCUPATIONAL PARITY:
- when the proportion of affirmative action group employees in all occupational
levels is equivalent to their respective availability in the qualified
external labor market. Eventually, with the goal of equal educational
and training opportunities, employment parity and occupational parity
may be equal.
- OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY (NYS Class & Comp):
- a study of all positions in a given class, series of classes, or occupational
group in whatever departments or agencies they may be located.
- OFCC (Federal):
- Office of Federal Contract Compliance - has set guidelines for all
federal contractors with respect to nondiscrimination and affirmative
action. For more information go to: Office
of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
- Office of the State Comptroller (OSC):
- The Office of the State Comptroller in New York State is responsible
for the audit and control function, for payroll auditing, for legal
opinions, and for managing the NYS defined benefit retirement programs.
For more information, go to: Office
of the State Comptroller
- "OFFICE" TITLE (NYS Class & Comp):
- a title which differs from the classified title assigned to a job
and which is used to describe a particular position for other than payroll,
budget, or official civil service purposes. For example, a Head Clerk
position might have an "office" title of Office Supervisor.
- on-the -job-training is job instruction given by an employee's supervisor
or experienced employee. After being shown how to do the tasks and duties,
the employee works closely with the trainer until the job is performed
at an expected level of performance.
- OPEN-COMPETITIVE LIST (NYS CSL):
- a certified list of appointment eligibles containing the names of
candidates who passed an open competitive examination for a title ranked
by examination scores. Transfer lists, preferred lists, reemployment
rosters, and promotional lists, if any, take precedence. (See
- perform an activity or series of activities.
- OPERATIONAL SERVICES UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
- a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of
craft workers, maintenance and repair personnel and machine operators,
currently represented by the Civil Service Employees' Association, Inc.,
(CSEA). See related information at:
- a structural framework which establishes the basis for determining
the responsibility, authority, and relationships of the members of the
enterprise. (how the resources are arranged to meet objectives). Organizational
design should address function, coordination, authority, responsibility,
- OSC (State): (See: Office of the State Comptroller).
- OSHA (Federal): (See: Occupational Safety and Health
- OSU (NYS Taylor Law): (See Operational Services Unit)
- OTHER STATUTE (OS) (NYS Class & Comp):
- designates a position, the salary of which is established by a statute
other than the Civil Service Law.
- OUT-OF-TITLE WORK (NYS Class & Comp):
- duties performed by an incumbent of a position which are not appropriate
to the class to which the position has been assigned.
- OVERTIME SERVICE (NYS PAYROLL):
- shall mean hours worked in excess of The required 40 or 37 1/2 hours
in the basic workweek as the case may be. Overtime in excess of 40 hours
must be paid at a time and one-half rate. Employees whose basic workweek
is 37 1/2 hours accrue compensatory time for hours worked in excess
of 37 1/2 hours but not in excess of 40 hours in a basic workweek.
- PARENTHETIC (NYS Class & Comp):
- a descriptive designation in parentheses following a common base title,
to distinguish a specialty within a given field, as Senior Personnel
Technician (Classification), Senior Personnel Technician (Examinations),
etc. Sometimes referred to as a "HOOK" placed after a base title.
- the long-term goal of affirmative action, reached when employment
and occupational parity are identical.
- take part in.
- PARTICIPATION RATE:
- (1) the percentage of incumbents of a job title, class, department,
or organizational unit (including the whole organization) who belong
to a given protected class; and (2) the percentage of individuals involved
in an employee process transaction (for example, application for employment,
hiring, placement, promotion, separation) who belong to a given protected
- the monetary compensation paid an employee for services. May be wages
- PAY EQUITY or SALARY EQUITY (Federal)
- concept that pay (wages/salary) should be "equal" for jobs having
"equal" job content. (See Equal Pay Act of 1963).
- PAYROLL DEDUCTION:
- an after-tax deduction from an employee's pay check for payment of
taxes, insurance premiums, unions dues, health insurance premiums, etc.
To see the current deductions or locate deduction codes for deductions
currently authorized on the New York State payroll system go to: NYS
- PERB (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Public Employment Relations
- PENSION AND WELFARE BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION (Federal):
- a federal administrative agency with responsibility for administering
pension and welfare benefit laws. Information on changes in Health Care
Law and other information on pensions and benefits can be found at:
and Welfare Benefits.
- fulfill or carry out some action.
- PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: (see PERFORMANCE EVALUATION).
- PERFORMANCE EVALUATION:
- a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the workplace,
normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of
job performance. For more information about evaluation go to:
- PERMANENT APPOINTMENT (NYS CSL):
- an appointment to an unencumbered NYS CSL) position of a candidate
who has met all of the merit and fitness requirements for such appointment,
including passing the necessary competitive examination and being reachable
for appointment from an eligible list, if necessary. An appointment
other than a Contingent Permanent, Temporary, or Provisional appointment.
After completion of a probationary term a permanent appointment continues
until retirement, layoff, termination for incompetence or misconduct,
resignation, or death.
- PERMANENT APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
- an appointment of a professional employee
in a professional title, except those titles listed in Appendix A of
the SUNY Policies of the Board of Trustees, which shall continue until
a change in such title, resignation, retirement, or termination. (See:
- PER SE:
- a violation for which there is no defense.
- PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND WORK OPPORTUNITY RECONCILIATION ACT OF
- among mandates, requires States to report all new hires to the Federal
Parent Locator Service by 10/1/97. States must conduct data matches
between the case registry and new hire directory by 5/1/98. Employers
must report new hires within 20 days after the hire or first pay. Employers
have the option of using the W-4 form or an equivalent to report to
the State. For more information see: Welfare
- PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (NYS Pers Manual):
- there are many definitions of personnel management, but all basically
say that it is: attracting and developing competent employees and creating
the organizational conditions which result in their full utilization
and encourages them to put forth their best efforts.
- simultaneous scheduling technique resulting in time graph. Project
Evaluation Review Technique.
- locate and choose positions for.
- the person who initiates litigation.
- the process of deciding what objectives to pursue during a future
time period and what to do to achieve those objectives. (object statement,
activities, resources, schedule).
- POINT FACTOR: (See Factor Point)
- guides to management thinking which help management achieve the organizations
objectives. For a link to SUNY Policies go to: Internal
- POLITICAL PATRONAGE:
- appointment of public employees by the political party in power on
the basis of political party loyalty and service rather than the candidates
qualifications. (See Spoils System).
- POSITION (NYS Class & Comp):
- an assigned group of duties and responsibilities, temporary or permanent,
requiring the full-time or part-time employment of one person. It may
be occupied or vacant.
- POSITION CLASSIFICATION (NYS CSL):
- a grouping together, under common and descriptive titles, of positions
that are substantially similar in the essential character and scope
of their duties and responsibilities and in the qualification requirements
therefor, OR the act of writing a job description and processing the
paper work necessary to classify a position.
- POSITION RANKING:
- a method of comparing jobs on a "whole job" basis for the purpose
of ranking such jobs in a hierarchy from highest to lowest. Usually
the basis for ranking is unspecified but frequently includes consideration
of organizational level of the position, perceived importance of the
position to the organizations mission, personal status of the incumbent,
- PR-50 DOWNGRADE (NYS PAYROLL):
- a transaction required by the NYS Department of Audit and Control
when an appointee is appointed to a lesser title, rank, or class than
the title, rank, or class of the budgeted position to which the appointment
is being made.
- perform work repeatedly to gain proficiency. Also, the habitual, normal,
or customary performance, operating procedure, or method.
- PREFERRED LIST (NYS CSL):
- a certified list of employees laid off from a title ranked by their
seniority date. Preferred list candidates have absolute preference for
positions based upon the "rule of one". Appointing officers must either
reinstate the number one eligible willing to accept appointment or leave
the position vacant. (see Eligible List).
- PREMIUM OVERTIME PAY:
- additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which
may be authorized by the Director of the Budget for employees who are
required to work beyond a normal work week, but who are ineligible to
accrue overtime credits. PREPARE: make ready for a particular purpose.
- PRIMA FACIE:
- violation where evidence is shown that an employment practice has
an adverse impact affecting an individual as a member of a similarly
affected class covered by Title VII. It shifts the burden to the defendant.
The elements necessary to support the claim have been presented and
unless evidence can be presented to rebut the previous arguments, the
claim will be supported. In the EEO area, statistics of underutilization
can be sufficient to make a prima facie case for discrimination. It
is then the responsibility of the employer to justify those statistics
through "business necessity", or BFOQs, etc.
- PRIVACY ACT (Federal):
- establishes rules for records maintenance and disclosure. For more
information go to: Privacy
- PROBABLE CAUSE:
- reasonable on the basis of the evidence but not certain or proved.
Before initiating court action, the EEOC makes a determination of no
cause, probable cause, or cause. In incidents of probable cause, pretrial
negotiations and conciliation generally resolve the issue before the
case can get to court.
- PROBATIONARY TERM (NYS CSL):
- every permanent appointment from an open competitive list and every
original permanent appointment to the noncompetitive, exempt, or labor
class shall be subject to a probationary period of not less than 26
weeks. If the probationer's service is less than satisfactory, employment
may be terminated any time after the completion of eight weeks.
- serve to implement policies by prescribing the course of action to be taken
in the administration of the policies. PROCEED: begin to carry out an action.
For a link to the SUNY Procedures Manual go to: Internal
- subject something to special treatment; handle in accordance with
- PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEE (SUNY):
- an employee in the Professional Services Negotiating Unit, other than
an employee with academic rank or qualified academic rank.
- PROFESSIONAL OBLIGATION (SUNY):
- the professional obligation of an employee consistent with his or
her academic rank or professional title, shall include teaching, research,
University service, and other duties and responsibilities required of
him or her during the term of the professional obligation. Except for
part-time or temporary employment where the obligation may be less,
the term of professional obligation will be calendar
year, or academic year, or college
- PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERVICES UNIT (PS&T) (NYS Taylor
- a negotiating unit in NYS service composed primarily
of professional classified service personnel,
often with professional experience or a college degree prerequisite;
currently represented by the Public Employee Federation (PEF). See related
- PROFESSIONAL SERVICES UNIT (PSU) (NYS Taylor Law):
- a negotiating unit in NYS service composed
primarily of academic employees and professional
employees of the State University of New York, currently represented
by United University Professions, Inc., (UUP). See related information
- PROFESSIONAL STAFF:
- all persons occupying positions designated by the Chancellor as being
in the unclassified service.
- PROFESSIONAL TITLE (SUNY):
- the title of a position in the Professional Services Negotiating Unit,
other than a position of academic or qualified academic rank, as shown
on the budget certificate for the position on file with the State Director
of the Budget.
- advance to a higher level or position generally resulting in increasing
demands in terms of skills, abilities, and responsibilities; also to
support or try to sell as in an idea.
- PROMOTIONAL LIST (NYS CSL):
- a certified list of appointment eligibles containing the names of
candidates who successfully passed a promotional examination for a title
ranked by examination scores. Promotional lists take precedence over
open-competitive lists but are subordinate to preferred lists. (see
- declare a plan or intention.
- PROTECTED CLASS:
- legally identified groups (by race, color, sex, and national origin)
that are specifically protected by statute against employment discrimination.
- supply what is needed.
- PROVISIONAL APPOINTMENT (NYS CLS):
- a stopgap appointment to an unencumbered permanent position which
may be made when no appropriate eligible list of at least three persons
willing to accept appointment is available to fill a vacancy in the
- PS&T (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Professional, Scientific
and Technical Services Unit:)
- PSU (NYS Taylor Law): (See Professional Services
- PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS BOARD-PERB (NYS Taylor Law):
- a board created under the Taylor Law (NYS Public Employees' Fair Employment
Act, Article 14 of the New York State Civil Service Law, Sections 200
et seq.) to serve as an independent neutral agency to administer the
law. Go to: PERB to visit
- QUALIFIED ACADEMIC RANK (SUNY):
- rank held by those members of the academic staff having titles of
lecturer, or titles of academic rank preceded by the designations "clinical",
or "visiting" or other similar designations. Service in qualified academic
rank does not count in meeting the service requirements for tenure.
- QUALITY CIRCLES:
- groups of 8-10 employees who are called together to work on common
problems in the work place.
- QUALS: (See Minimum Qualifications)
- fixed hiring and promotion rates based on race, sex, etc., which must
be met at all costs and do not take into account or consideration the
availability, education, or training of the external labor market of
protected class members, or the employer's internal labor situation
with respect to projected work force requirements. Quotas are considered
to be last resort measures available only for the courts to impose when
good faith efforts do not exist.
- Quality of Working Life refers to the extent to which employee's personal
needs and values are met through their work.
- RANK IN PERSON:
- the method of establishing pay primarily on the basis of an employee's
qualifications with less consideration, or none, given to the actual
duties and responsibilities performed by the employee.
- a person ranking by test score among the top three on an eligible
list who are willing and able to accept appointment to a position in
the competitive class. (see RULE OF THREE).
- REALLOCATE(NYS Class & Comp):
- to change the existing allocation of a class to a different salary
grade in the schedule.
- REASSIGNMENT (NYS CSL):
- the change, without further examination, of a permanent employee from
one position to a position in the same title under the jurisdiction
of the same appointing authority.
- an answer to an argument, a primie facie case, or a presumption.
- RECALL (NYS PAYROLL):
- an employee eligible to earn overtime compensation who is recalled
to work overtime, after having completed his/ her scheduled work period
and left the scheduled work station, is considered to have worked a
minimum of one-half day for the purpose of computing overtime compensation.
An employee working a 40 hour week is credited with 4 hours; and employee
working a 37 1/2 hour week, with 3 3/4 hours.
- RECLASSIFY (NYS Class & Comp):
- to reassign a position to a different class based upon a reexamination
of the duties and responsibilities of the position.
- RECOGNITION (NYS TAYLOR LAW):
- a public employer may voluntarily recognize an employee organization
as negotiating agent.
- advise or counsel a course of action; offer or suggest for adoption.
- the process of acquiring a pool of applicants who are available and
qualified to fill positions in the organization.
- RED CIRCLED EMPLOYEES:
- the term red circled is used to identify employees who are currently
being paid more than the maximum of their pay grade due to longevity
or specialized skills possessed by the individual.
- RELEVANT LABOR POOL:
- the total number of incumbent employees who are in a position for
a specific promotion, or all candidates who could conceivably be considered
for a promotion.
- to send back. For example, if a court of appeals finds further action
is necessary in a case or if further testimony is needed to decide the
case, it will remand the case to the lower court.
- give an account of; furnish information or data.
- act in place of or for.
- inquire into a specific matter from several sources.
- capital, materials, equipment, people.
- that person against whom an administrative charge of discrimination
- what must be done with delegated authority. A recruiter with authority
to hire is responsible for keeping department adequately staffed. (see
- a brief statement of the personal, educational, and professional qualifications
and experience of a candidate for a position.
- RETRENCHMENT (SUNY):
- termination of the employment of any academic or professional employee
during any appointment other than a temporary appointment as a result
of financial exigency, reallocation of resources, reorganization, or
curtailment of programs or functions. (see LAYOFFS).
- examine or reexamine.
- rework in order to correct or improve.
- Reduction In Force (see LAYOFF)
- RULE OF THREE (NYS CSL):
- the "rule of three" requires that appointment or promotion to classified
service positions in the competitive class
from an eligible list must be made by the selection of one of the three
highest ranking eligibles willing to accept appointment.
- pay which is usually stated as a monthly or annual figure and is monetary
compensation for employee contributions without regard to the specific
hours required of them to complete their responsibilities.
- SALARY SURVEY (NYS Class & Comp):
- a study of salaries paid by other employers for work comparable to
that of selected classes in New York State Service.
- SALARY CHARTS OR TABLES: (See
- plan a timetable.
- SCHEDULE OF POSITIONS (SOP) (NYS Budget): (See Certificate
- SCHEDULED OVERTIME (NYS BUDGET):
- overtime which is susceptible to scheduling and approval in advance
- range of duties of a job or how long it takes a worker to complete
the total task.
- gain possession of; make safe.
- SECURITY SERVICES UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
- a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of
security personnel such as correction officers, campus public safety
officers, and institution safety officers, currently represented by
Council 82. See related information at:
- SEC. SUPR. (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Security Supervisors
- SECURITY SUPERVISORS UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
- a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of
supervisors of corrections and safety employees, mostly lieutenants,
currently represented by Council 82. See related information at:
- process of choosing qualified individuals who are available to fill
positions in the organization.
- refers to an employee's length of continuous service with the State
or at a campus; sometimes may also refer to an employee's time in title
or rank, or appointment type, or length of service in a position or
positions represented by a particular bargaining unit.
SERIES SPECIFICATION (NYS Class & Comp):
a specification describing all classes which are closely related to
each other in kind of work, regardless of dissimilarity in location, title,
or jurisdictional classification.
SHIFT PAY DIFFERENTIAL (NYS PAYROLL) :
additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which
may be authorized by the Director of Classification and Compensation subject
to approval by the Director of the Budget. The pay differential may be
prescribed for those employees on a night shift, four or more hours of
which fall between 6:00 P.M. and 6:00 A.M. The authorization is for a
particular position and may be within a specific geographical area.
SHRM (Organization): (See: Society
for Human Resource Management.
formally approve a document by affixing a signature.
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area - the area of employee recruitment
against which parity and utilization levels are compared. The SMSA may
vary depending upon level of job class, availability of applicants, location
of work station, etc.
SOCIAL SECURITY (Federal):
a federal retirement and disability income program. For more information
SOCIETY FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(SHRM):
a professional organizational personnel managers. For more information
go to: Society for Human Resource Management.
SOP (NYS Budget):
schedule of positions. (See: Certificate of Approval
SPAN OF CONTROL:
refers to the number of key result areas for which a position is accountable.
SPECIFICATION (NYS Class & Comp):
a written description of a class, covering duties, responsibilities,
minimum qualification requirements, and other distinguishing features.
state precisely in detail or name explicitly.
a system under which political party loyalty and service were the "tests"
for obtaining government jobs.
SS (Federal): (See: Social Security).
Security Services Unit).
is supportive and may be defined as the right to advise and provide
service to other organizational members.
functions that do not contribute directly toward the basic objective
but rather do so indirectly by facilitating and assisting in the performance
of line work.
involves determining future needs, and recruiting, selecting, and training
the organization's work force.
an established criterion or model against which actual results can be
STANDBY ON-CALL PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
additional compensation authorized by the Director of the Budget for
employees eligible to accrue overtime credits who are required to be available
for immediate recall, and who must be prepared to return to duty within
a limited period of time.
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (SUNY):
the State University of New York System. For more information go to:
State University of New York.
an agreement between the opposing parties, somewhat akin to a contract,
identifying which facts or issues are not disputed. Used as a time-saving
device to narrow a case down to essential matters.
long term plans.
yield or present for the discretion or judgment of others.
an order of the court commanding individuals (or documents) to appear
and give testimony. Derived from the Latin sub (under) and poena (penalty)
because failure to appear may be considered contempt of court. A subpoena
for documents is known as a duces tecum.
could be issued by the court at the point where there is no dispute
of material facts.
SUNY (Organization): (See: State
University of New York).
oversee, direct, inspect or guide the work of others with responsibility for
meeting performance standards. See Supervise
for additional information.
equal employment opportunity may be denied as the
inevitable consequence of some established business practice, persisting
over a period of time, rather than of a specific overt action against
an aggrieved party. Such a result of the "system" is systemic discrimination
and has been the root of most Title VII settlements
to date. Inadvertent and usually unintentional, the disparate effect produced
by systemic discrimination constitutes a prime area or vulnerability for
short term detailed plan; usually for one year.
a distinct work activity which has an identifiable beginning and end.
TAX DEPARTMENT (NYS)
Go to: NYS Tax Department
TB SERVICE or TBS (NYS Class & Comp) :
a parenthetic designation attached to the title of a position the incumbent
of which works in close and regular association with patients having active
tuberculosis. In recognition of the hazard of infection, such positions
receive a salary grade higher than that of other positions classified
to the same basic title.
TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM (NYS):
a defined benefit retirement program for NYS teachers. For more information
go to: Teachers' Retirement
loss of jobs through the development of new machines or techniques of
TEMPORARY APPOINTMENT (NYS CSL):
an appointment to a position which is established for only a temporary,
short duration, or an appointment to a permanent position which is temporarily
TEMPORARY APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
an appointment which may be terminated at any time. Temporary appointments
ordinarily shall be given only when service is to be part-time, voluntary,
or anticipated to be for a period of one year or less, or when an employee's
initial appointment is made to a position vacated by a professional employee
who is serving a probationary appointment in another position. A temporary
appointment is also appropriate whenever a position has been vacated by
an employee on an approved leave.
status granted to an employee, usually after completion of a probationary
period, assuring him or her of the permanency of his or her employment.
TERM APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
except as provided in section 6 of Title D of Article XI of the SUNY
Policies of the Board of Trustees, a term appointment shall be an appointment
for a specified period of not more than three years which shall automatically
expire at the end of the period unless terminated earlier because of resignation,
retirement, or termination.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT (NYS TAYLOR LAW):
means salaries, wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment.
theory that people do not like to work and therefore must be forced
to do so. (Douglas McGregor).
theory that people want to be free to accomplish something and do not
want to be strictly controlled.
theory that people will work better if they have an opportunity to participate
in decision making in their organizations. (William Ouchi) (see Quality
consecutive time (usually in affirmative action, a timetable covers
one year) during which the specific quantitative goals and objectives
for that period are to be met and evaluations of progress made before
beginning the subsequent timetable with its own specific goals and objectives.
TITLE (NYS Class & Comp):
the "label" used to officially designate a class. It is descriptive
of the work performed and its relative level.
TITLE I (Federal):
provides criminal penalties for interferences with an individual's employment
rights because of race, color, religion, or ethnic origin.
TITLE STRUCTURE CHANGE (NYS Class & Comp):
reclassification of one or more classes to a new title for the purpose
of improving State title structure, involving no change in duties or responsibilities.
The elimination of a title by substitution of a more appropriate title
without any change in duties or responsibilities of the positions involved.
TITLE VI (Federal):
prohibits discrimination in federally assisted programs. For more information
go to: Title
TITLE VII (Federal):
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (as amended by the Equal
Employment Opportunity Act of 1972). The first legislation to make it
an unlawful employment practice to discriminate on the basis of race,
color, sex, or national origin. All other federal and state EEO legislation
is patterned after and/or supportive of Title VII.
TITLE IX (Federal):
grants authority to the US Attorney General to intervene in Civil Rights
cases of general public interest.
TITLE IX EDUCATIONAL AMENDMENTS OF 1972 (Federal):
prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs that receive federal
assistance. For more information go to: Title
IX (Sex Discrimination)
teach or guide others in order to bring work up to a predetermined standard.
any process by means of which skill and knowledge are increased to do
a particular job.
TRAINING COUNCIL (NYS):
Go to: NYS Training Council
transfer data from one form of record to another or from one method
of preparation to another without changing the nature of the data.
a transfer involves an employee's reassignment to a job with similar
pay, status, duties, and responsibilities. Whereas a promotion involves
upward movement, a transfer entails horizontal movement from one job to
another. In New York State, service transfer means the change, without
further examination, of a permanent employee from a position under the
jurisdiction of one appointing authority to a position under the jurisdiction
of another appointing authority or to a position in a different title
in the same or a higher salary grade under the jurisdiction of the same
TRS (NYS): See: Teachers' Retirement
UNCLASSIFIED SERVICE (NYS CLS):
the unclassified service shall comprise of the following:
USERRA (Federal): (See: Uniformed
Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act
those who have jobs that provide incomes below minimal acceptable levels.
terms used to describe a lower number of affirmative action group employees
than parity would predict. Once underutilization is quantitatively established,
the burden of proof rests with the employer to demonstrate that the underutilization
is the legitimate effect of BFOQ and valid criteria of business necessity.
UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS
ACT OF 1994 (Federal):
federal statute that provides certain civilian employment and reemployment
rights when military personnel separate from service. For information
go to: USERRA
Uniformed Services Rights
UNITY OF COMMAND:
no position should be accountable to more than one other position for
the same activity (key result area).
UNSCHEDULED OVERTIME (NYS Budget):
overtime which is necessitated by emergency conditions which cannot
be anticipated in advance.
- all elective offices;
- all offices filled by election or appointment by the legislature
on joint ballot;
- all officers and employees of the state legislature, and all officers
and employees of any other legislative body whose principal functions
and duties are directly related to the performance of the legislative
functions of such body;
- all offices filled by appointment by the governor;
- the head or heads of any department of the government who vested
with authority, direction and control over a department, and who have
power and authority to appoint and remove officers and employees therein;
- all members, officers, and employees of boards of elections;
- all persons employed by any title whatsoever as members of the teaching
and supervisory staff of a school district, board of cooperative educational
services or county vocational education and extension board, as certified
by the state commission by the commissioner of education;
- all positions in the state university in the professional service as defined
in subdivision three of section three hundred fifty-five-a of the education
law, (See Section 355(a)
which positions shall be determined by the chancellor of the state university
and certified by him to the civil service commission;
- all positions in community colleges in the professional services;
- all persons, other than persons covered under paragraphs (g), (h),
or (i) above, whose principal functions are teaching or the supervision
of teaching in a public school, academy or college;
- all positions in the professional service in the New York State
School for the Blind and the New York State School for the Deaf.
the extent to which a test, criterion, or qualification measures the
trait (some performance ability) for which it is being used, rather than
some other trait. "Business necessity" considerations are addressed to
the usefulness of the test in predicting job performance and the minimum
employees have a wide latitude in defining their hours to be worked.
VARIABLE MINIMUM: (see HIGHER MINIMUM)
confirm or establish authenticity; substantiate.
protected or held by a person; ownership. (i.e., an employee who has
met service requirements for vesting his or her retirement benefit has
a right to a retirement benefit from his/her employer even if separation
from service occurs before the employee is actually eligible to retire).
VETERANS CREDITS (NYS CSL):
qualifying disabled veterans who pass competitive examinations are given
ten points additional credits on their examination scores in open-competitive
examinations and five points in promotional examinations. Non-disabled
qualifying veterans receive five points and two points respectively. Veterans
also have right of preference in retention in the event of a reduction
in force (RIF) in the competitive class.
VIETNAM ERA VETERANS READJUSTMENT ACT of 1974 (Federal)
requires employers to take affirmative action to employ and advance
disabled veterans and qualified veterans of the Vietnam era.
a brief biographical statement of a person's career.
VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION ACT of 1973 (Federal)
requires federal contractors to take affirmative action to employ and
promote qualified handicapped persons.
pay for services rendered by employees which is directly related to
time (hours) worked.
the process of designing routine tasks so that employee controlled machines
can perform them.
WORKERS COMPENSATION (NYS):
Insurance protection for employees injured on the job. See: NYS
Workers' Compensation Board and The
State Insurance Fund.
WORKWEEK (NYS Budget):
a regularly recurring period of 168 hours in the form of seven consecutive
24-hour periods. A workweek need not coincide with the calendar week -
it may begin any day of the week and any hour of the day. Each workweek
stands alone. Once fixed, however, it must remain the same unless any
change is intended to be permanent.
ZIP CODE (Federal):
a mail routing code developed and maintained by the U.S. Postal Service.
To find a zip code for an address, go to: Zip
ZONE OF EMPLOYMENT:
that physical area within which injuries to an employee are compensable
by workers' compensation laws; it denotes the place of employment and
surrounding areas, including the means of ingress and egress.