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Glossary of Terms Significant to the Human Resource Management Function for the State University of New York

Following is a glossary of terms that are significant to the human resource function. While many of the terms are specifically defined as they apply to employment in the State University of New York or other employment in the civil service of the State of New York, many relate to the human resource function in general. A unique feature of this glossary is the inclusion, in italics, of active verbs that could be used in job descriptions to differentiate levels of duties and responsibilities.

An alphabetical index is provided to assist you in locating the reference you seek. Also, you will note that the parenthetical notations often appearing following a term are an attempt to identify the source for a definition: (SUNY) refers to the Policies of the Board of Trustees; (NYS CSL) refers to the Civil Service Law; (NYS Class & Comp) refers to materials prepared by the Classification and Compensation section of the Civil Service Department; (NYS Taylor Law) refers to the Public Employees' Fair Employment Act; (Federal) refers to definitions from federal government statutes, rules, regulations, and executive orders; (NYS Payroll) refers to the NYS Payroll Manual prepared by the Office of the State Comptroller; (NYS Pers Manual) refers to the Personnel Manual prepared by the NYS Department of Civil Service; (NYS Budget) refers to budget bulletins and other materials relating to the budget process in State agencies; and (Contract) refers to at least one of the collective bargaining agreements between the State and the unions that represent university employees.


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ACADEMIC EMPLOYEE (SUNY):
an academic rank or qualified academic rank employee in the Professional Services Negotiating Unit.
ACADEMIC RANK (SUNY):
rank held by those members of the professional staff having the title of professor, associate professor, assistant professor, instructor, including geographic full-time faculty members having such titles, and rank held by members of the professional staff having the titles of librarian, associate librarian, senior assistant librarian, and assistant librarian.
ACADEMIC STAFF (SUNY):
the staff comprised of those persons having academic rank or qualified academic rank.
ACADEMIC YEAR OBLIGATION (SUNY):
an annual obligation of service for the academic year, not to exceed 10 months.
ACCOUNTABILITY:
the correct use of delegated authority to meet a specific responsibility.
ACRONYMS (SUNY/NYS):
For a list of acronyms associated with the SUNY Human Resources function, go to: Acronyms. Most of these acronyms also are included in this glossary.
ADA: (See Americans With Disabilities Act)
ADMINISTER:
manage or direct the execution of affairs.
ADMINISTRATIVE SALARY PLAN (SUNY)
SUNY Board of Trustees approved salary plan for Presidents of the State-operated campuses, the Chancellor, Executive Vice Chancellor, Senior Vice Chancellor and Provost.
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES UNIT (ASU) (NYS Taylor Law):
ative support staff, currently represented by the Civil Service Employees' Association, Inc. (CSEA). See related information at:
  • ASU NU Info a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of classified service employees, primarily office and administrrmation or
ADOPT:
to take up and practice as one's own.
ADVISE:
to recommend a course of action; offer an informed opinion based on specialized knowledge.
ADVISORY ARBITRATION:
a proceeding where an arbitrator issues a decision which is not final and binding on the parties.
AFFECTED CLASS:
those groups of persons, and protected by anti-discrimination laws, who because of past discrimination, may continue to suffer the effects of such discrimination. Affected class status may be determined by statistical analysis and/or court decision.
AFFIDAVIT:
a written declaration of facts made voluntarily under oath. This is made without notice to an opposing party and without the opportunity for cross-examination.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION:
any action intended to correct effects of past discrimination, to eliminate present discrimination, or to prevent discrimination for the future.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION GROUPS:
those persons identified by the federal and state laws to be specifically protected from employment discrimination.
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PLAN:
a statement of goals, timetables, and programs indicating how the employer plans to move the current status to parity. Also, a document required of government contractors under the regulations of the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP). The employer is obliged to compare the internal distribution of minorities and females to their incidence in the external labor market and to determine whether or not the employer is at parity with the external labor market.
AGE DISCRIMINATION and EMPLOYMENT ACT of 1967 (ADEA) as amended (Federal):
Specifies it is unlawful for an employer to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge an individual or otherwise discriminate against an individual with respect to compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of an individual's age. For more information go to Age Discrimination (ADEA)
AGENCY FEE:
a fee deducted from the salary of New York State employees who are non-members of the employee organization chosen by their negotiating unit, if any, to represent them for purposes of collective bargaining. The fee deduction is equivalent to the dues deducted for members. It is considered payment for services or benefits provided to non-members of the employee organization as a result of collective bargaining. See related information at: Agency Fee Payroll Deduction.
ALIEN:
an individual born in, and a citizen of, a country other than the country in which he or she is living.
ALLOCATE (NYS Class & Comp):
to assign a class to a particular salary grade in the salary schedule.
ALTERNATE WORK SCHEDULE: (See Executive Order 68)
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (ASTD):
a professional organization. For more information go to: American Society for Training and Development.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT OF 1990 (ADA):
the ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in employment, programs and services provided by state and local governments, goods and services provided by private companies, and in commercial facilities. For more information go to: ADA Information on the WEB.
AMICUS CURIAE:
a party not involved in a lawsuit but who has an interest in its outcome and who submits arguments to the court in an effort to aid the court in reaching its judgment.
ANALYZE:
separate into elements and critically examine.
ANNUITY:
a fixed amount of money payable periodically for life or for a fixed number of years which has been bequeathed, donated, or purchased.
ANSWER:
a response by the person who is sued, or response to a question.
ANTE (NYS Budget):
Refers to the maximum expenditure which may be authorized. For positions, the maximum amount which may be paid to an incumbent. (At not to exceed).
ANTICIPATE:
foresee and deal with in advance.
APPEAL (NYS Class & Comp) (NYS CSL):
application to the Civil Service Commission to review a determination of the Director of Classification and Compensation. Also includes application to the Civil Service Commission to review decisions of the Department of Civil Service on minimum qualifications, comparability of title for examination, and test grades. Also, the act of a plaintiff who wishes to test a Civil Service Commission decision in court under Article 78 of the Civil Practice Laws and Rules. Action moving a Step One grievance decisions to Step Two, etc.
APPELLANT:
the party who appeals a decision.
APPENDIX A (SUNY):
a list of professional services negotiating unit positions not eligible for permanent appointment found at the end of Article XI in the SUNY Policies of the Board of Trustees. In lieu of permanent appointments, appointees to Appendix A titles must be given 5-year term appointments after an initial 1 year probationary appointment.
APPLICATION:
the act of requesting. Includes a request to the Director of Classification and Compensation for a change in title and/or salary as provided by the NYS Civil Service Law and other requests for review of administrative actions of the Department of Civil Service. Also includes requests for consideration for employment from candidates for positions and employee requests for promotion. An Application Blank is the formal record of a person's request to be employed.
APPOINTING AUTHORITY or APPOINTING OFFICER (NYS CSL) (SUNY):
the officer, commission or body having the power of appointment to subordinate positions. In SUNY, each campus President is an appointing authority.
APPOINTMENT:
the act of placing a person in a position or office.
APPOINTMENT YEAR (SUNY):
unless the terms of appointment otherwise provide, the normal appointment year shall be from September 1 to August 31, regardless of payroll mode; provided however, that an academic year employee may be required to commence her/his professional obligation at a date reasonably prior to September 1 as may be necessitated by a college's operating requirements.
APPRAISE:
give an expert opinion/judgment of worth or merit.
APPROVE:
accept as satisfactory; exercise final authority with regard to the commitment of resources.
ARBITRARY:
something done capriciously or at pleasure; without adequate determining principle; non-rational.
ARBITRATION (NYS Taylor Law):
a procedure through which a third party neutral arbitrator examines facts in a hearing and renders an award to settle a dispute. Sometimes referred to as "Rights Arbitration" in contrast to "Interest Arbitration".
ARBITRATOR:
an impartial person selected by the parties to a dispute who is empowered to make a determination concerning the issues in dispute.
ARRANGE:
make preparation for an event; put in proper order.
ARTICLE 78 PROCEEDING:
a proceeding brought in New York State Supreme Court for review of governmental action pursuant to Article 78 of the Civil Practice Law and Rules.
ASSEMBLE:
collect or gather together in a predetermined order from various sources.
ASSIGN:
specify or designate tasks or duties to be performed by others.
ASSUME:
undertake; take for granted.
ASSURE:
give confidence, make certain of.
ASTD (Organization): (See: American Society for Training and Development).
ASU (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Administrative Services Unit)
AUTHORITY:
refers to the right a manager has to control the activities of subordinates. Decision-making power.
AUTHORIZE:
approve; empower through vested authority.


BARGAINING AGENT:
the employee organization chosen by employees in a negotiating unit to have exclusive representation rights for them in collective bargaining.
BARGAINING UNIT: (See: Negotiating Unit)
BASE ANNUAL SALARY:
the base salary before the addition of overtime pay or of any temporary or "emergency" increases approved for a limited period or purpose, or any extra service compensation or additional stipend or pay for other services such as service as department chair.
BASIC WORKWEEK CLASSIFIED EMPLOYEES (NYS CSL):
the basic workweek shall be 40 hours; provided, however, that where a shorter workweek would not interfere with the proper performance of government functions, an appointing authority may establish a basic workweek of not less than 37 1/2 hours. (See Workweek)
BLUE CROSS - BLUE SHIELD
a health insurance provider. A major product is the managed care program offered by the "Blue Choice" (HMO) plan. More information is available at: Blue Cross - Blue Shield.
BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATION - BFOQ or BOQ.
a minimum qualification requirement needed as a prerequisite to being able to do a particular job. BFOQs, if challenged, must be demonstrated to be valid by the employer. The courts have interpreted BFOQs very narrowly, especially with regard to sex. Each applicant must be treated as an individual in comparing his or her skills to the skills required to perform the job.
BRIEF:
a paper written by a lawyer to serve as a basis for his or her later oral argument to the court. Its use is largely to inform the court of the lawyer's argument, authorities on questions of law, and desired interpretation of the case.
BUDGET:
financial statement of a plan.
BUDGET CERTIFICATE (NYS Payroll): (See Certificate of Approval)
BUMP (NYS CSL):
the displacement of one classified service employee by another who is being laid off and has greater seniority and is serving in the next higher level direct line title in the layoff unit.
BURDEN OF PROOF:
the responsibility for demonstrating to the requisite degree the truth of one's claim; the affirmative duty of proving or disapproving the claim at issue.
BUSINESS NECESSITY:
Supreme Court's touchstone for determining lawfulness under Title VII of a discriminatory effect. Must be essential to the safe and efficient operation of a business. Generally involves whether the employer would be committed to additional costs or a safety hazard if the discriminatory practice were abandoned. Savings gained by shorter training periods, preserving or improving an employer's image, customer or co-worker preferences, superior or inferior ability to perform non-essential aspects of a job, or need to maintain harmony or decorum at the place of business do NOT qualify as business necessities.
CAFETERIA PLAN:
a form of benefit compensation in which employees may choose between two or more taxable or non-taxable benefits (i.e., life insurance, health insurance, tax deferred annuities, etc.).
CALENDAR YEAR OBLIGATION (SUNY):
an annual obligation of service for a full year, (i.e., 12 months).
CANVASS:
an inquiry as to whether an eligible candidate for a classified service vacancy would be willing to accept appointment, if offered.
CAPRICIOUS:
subject to, led by, or indicative of a sudden, unpredictable change without apparent or adequate motive.
CAREER:
a sequence of jobs held during a person's work life.
CAREER LADDER:
composed of jobs requiring related and increasingly more responsible duties, through which employees advance by experience, in-service training, and testing.
CASUAL EMPLOYEE (SUNY):
unclassified service employee whose employment relationship is so limited as not to justify assignment to a negotiating unit.
CENTRALIZATION:
upper level management retains major decision making authority, creating all major policies and programs, and preserving the authority to make significant changes.
CEO:
Chief Executive Officer.
CERT (NYS Payroll): (See Certificate of Approval)
Budget Certificate.
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL (NYS Payroll):
a listing, ordered by payroll line item number, of positions and salaries approved by the NYS Division of Budget for funding from a NYS appropriation for personal service regular expenditures. The NYS Office of the State Comptroller cannot pay more on a line item than the amount which is authorized on the certificate of approval. Also known as Schedule of Positions (SOP).
CERTIFICATION (NYS Budget), (NYS CSL), or (NYS Taylor Law):
May refer to DOB certifying positions and the Department of Civil certifying appointment to the payroll. May also refer to the Public Employment Relations Board's (PERB) certifying an employee organization as the exclusive representative for a unit of employees.
CHAOS:
a condition created when an organization changes the rules in response to every new situation.
CHARGING PARTY:
person alleging that he or she is aggrieved as the result of an unlawful employment practice.
CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER (SUNY):
the head of a college or contract college whether called president, dean, provost, director, or otherwise. (CAO)
CIVIL SERVICE (NYS CSL):
encompasses all offices and employments in the service of the State or any of its civil divisions, except offices and employments in the Division of Military and Naval Affairs. The Civil Service is divided into the unclassified and classified service.
CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION (NYS CSL):
considered the "watchdog" of the New York State merit system, the Civil Service Commission is composed of three members appointed by the Governor. From the three, one is appointed by the Governor to serve as President. The President is the administrative head of the Department of Civil Service. The Commission promulgates rules, hears appeals, and conducts investigations.
CIVIL SERVICE LAW (NYS CSL):
law under which NYS employment in the classified service is governed. For a summary of the law go to: Civil Service Law Summary.
CIVIL SERVICE RULES (NYS CSL):
the rules of the Civil Service Commission implement the Civil Service Law, provide procedures and other details for carrying out the law, and have the force of law themselves.
CLASS or CLASS OF POSITIONS (NYS Class & Comp):
one or more positions sufficiently similar in respect to duties and responsibilities that the same title may be used to designate each position in the group, the same salary may be equitably applied, the same qualifications required, and the same examination used to select qualified employees.
CLASS ACTION:
a lawsuit or grievance initiated by one or more member(s) of a larger group of persons on behalf of all the members of the group.
CLASSIFIED SERVICE (NYS CSL):
the classified service shall comprise all offices and positions not included in the unclassified service. The offices and positions in the classified service shall be divided into four classes, to be designated as the exempt class, the non-competitive class, the labor class, and the competitive class.
CLASSIFY (NYS Class & Comp):
to group positions according to their duties and responsibilities and assign a class title.
CLASS SPECIFICATION: (See Specification)
CLASS TITLE: (See Title)
CLEAR:
gain approval of others.
COBRA (Federal): (See: Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (Federal).
COLLABORATE:
work jointly with, cooperate with others.
COLLECT:
gather or amass.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING (NYS Taylor Law):
statutory mechanism for employees to participate collectively in the determination of their terms and conditions of employment through meetings between their elected representatives and their employer at which their terms and conditions of employment are negotiated. Also used to resolve labor disputes.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT:
An agreement reached through collective negotiations between management and representatives of employee unions. Go to: Links to Collective Bargaining Agreements to view current agreements.
COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY PERSONNEL ASSOCIATION (CUPA):
an organization that supports personnel administration in higher education. For more information go to: College and University Personnel Association.
COLLEGE YEAR OBLIGATION (SUNY):
an annual obligation of service for any period less than the full year (for professional employees).
COMPARABLE WORTH:
the principle that jobs can be compared which may be dissimilar in nature but equal or equivalent in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions; used to achieve salary equity; popularly tied to sex discrimination.
COMPENSATION:
remuneration for services rendered or for damages incurred. Includes pay, incentives, and benefits provided employees.
COMPETENT:
capable of doing a certain thing; having capacity to understand, and act reasonably.
COMPETITIVE CLASS (NYS CLS):
the competitive class shall include all positions for which it is practicable to determine the merit and fitness of applicants by competitive examination. See: Classified Service Competitive Examination Announcements for information about examinations.
COMPILE:
put together information, collect from other documents.
COMPLAINT:
an informal grievance; a gripe; a non-contract dispute; the first paper filed by a plaintiff.
COMPLIANCE:
within statutory limits and court interpretations, acts by an employer to bring practices into line with civil rights legislation through training managers, supervisors and employees; changing policies, procedures; altering compensation levels; making physical plant changes; changing working hours; etc.
COMPLIANCE AGENCIES:
organizations established under the Office of Federal Contract Compliance as internal sub-units of major government departments or agencies, including, for example, the Department of Labor, Department of Commerce, the Department of Defense. They are charged with the administration of Executive Order 11246, Revised Orders No. 4 and No. 14, and with the collection and analysis of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Reports and Affirmative Action Plans. Their powers of enforcement include the ability to deny government business to contractors found in violation. For more information go to: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
COMPRESSED WORKWEEK:
work schedules with fewer than five workdays a week.
COMPULSORY ARBITRATION:
when the law authorizes either party or an outside agency to impose a settlement after an arbitration hearing.
CONCILIATION:
a settlement of a dispute through discussion rather than formal hearings and/or a trial. Sometimes called mediation. Used by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), PERB, and Division of Human Rights, among others.
CONCUR:
agree with a position, statement, action, or opinion.
CONCURRENT:
to run together, in conjunction with; to exist together.
CONDUCT:
carry on; direct the execution of.
CONFER:
consult with others to compare views.
CONFIDENTIAL (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Management/Confidential).
CONSENT DECREE:
by comparison, the judicial counterpart to conciliation; a formal court document approved by a judge.
CONSOLIDATE:
bring together.
CONSOLIDATED OMNIBUS BUDGET RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1985 (COBRA) (Federal):
this law requires that most employers sponsoring group health plans offer employees and their families the opportunity for a temporary extension of health care and union Employee Benefit Fund coverage called "continuation coverage" at group rates in certain instances where coverage under the program would otherwise end.
CONSULT:
seek the advice of others.
CONTINGENT PERMANENT (NYS CSL):
an appointment, transfer, or reinstatement to a temporarily vacant position of a person meeting all merit and fitness requirements for such appointment. Except in the case of the return of a prior incumbent, contingent permanent appointees have all rights and benefits of permanent appointees.
CONTINUING APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
an appointment to a position of academic rank which shall not be affected by changes in such rank and shall continue until resignation, retirement, or termination. (See: Tenure).
CONTRACTOR OR EMPLOYEE (Federal): Employee/Contractor
CONTRIBUTORY PENSION PLAN:
the employee and employer share the cost of pension benefits.
CONTROL:
measure, interpret, and evaluate actions for conformance with plans and/ or desired results.
CONTROLLING:
staying with the plan making sure the objectives are met and changing the plan as necessary.
COORDINATE:
regulate, adjust or combine the actions of others to attain harmony.
COORDINATION:
the relationships between various positions within an organization. Includes reporting and supervisory relationships per organization chart.
CORRELATE:
establish a reciprocal relationship.
CORRESPOND:
communicate in writing with.
COUNSELING:
a private supervisory conference between a supervisor and a subordinate employee at which the employee's performance deficiencies are discussed. The motivation for such counseling sessions is to improve the employee's performance and eliminate the performance deficiencies. For more information about counseling go to: Counseling
COUNSELING MEMORANDUM:
a written follow-up to an employee following counseling which confirms the reason for the counseling, a summary of the effect of the employee's deficiencies, a summary of the employee's response to the counseling, and the corrective actions expected.
CUPA (Organization): (See: College and University Personnel Association).


DATA:
facts and figures.
DECENTRALIZATION:
significant decision making authority is delegated throughout the organization to lower management levels.
DECISION:
a determination or judgment. The result of an administrative or judicial review. In judicial cases, possible results include dismissal of charges, injunction, and awards for damages or punishment.
DEDUCTION: (See: Payroll Deduction).
DEFENDANT:
the person(s) or organization(s) being sued.
DEFINED BENEFIT PLAN:
a retirement program under which the retirement benefit to be paid is some percentage of final salary rather than simply the return on investment of the retirement fund. See related information about retirement programs available for SUNY employees at: Retirement Benefits.
DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN:
a retirement program under which an employee contributes a percentage of salary and the return on investment determines the retirement benefit. See related information about retirement programs available for SUNY employees at: Retirement Benefits.
DELEGATE:
commission another to perform tasks or duties that may carry specific degrees of accountability. Ideally authority should be passed to the lowest level within the organization capable of making an effective decision.
DEPARTMENTALIZATION:
the process of combining jobs into work units and grouping similar work units.
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL SERVICE (NYS CSL):
in New York State, it is the State's primary personnel management arm, responsible for the classification and allocation of classified service State positions, the recruitment and selection of candidates for State classified service employment, and the development and maintenance of statewide agency personnel systems. For more information go to: NYS Department of Civil Service
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (NYS):
Go to: NYS Department of Labor
DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION AND FINANCE (NYS):
visit this site at: NYS Tax Department.
DEPOSITION:
a written declaration of facts made voluntarily out of court but under oath in the presence of the opposing party, who may conduct cross-examination in front of a court reporter.
DESIGN:
conceive, create, and execute according to plan.
DESK AUDIT (NYS Class & Comp):
a review and discussion of the duties and responsibilities of a position made at an employee's desk or other regular place of work.
DETERMINE:
resolve; fix conclusively or authoritatively.
DEVELOP:
disclose, discover, perfect or unfold a plan or idea.
DEVISE:
come up with something new.
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (Federal):
a dictionary of titles and descriptive information about their classification created and maintained by the federal government.
DIRECT:
guide operations through the establishment of objectives, policies, rules, practices, methods, and standards.
DIRECT DEPOSIT OF PAYROLL:
making direct deposit of payroll to employee bank accounts via electronic transfer rather than writing pay checks. For more information go to: Direct Deposit.
DISABILITY:
state of not being fully capable of performing all essential functions whether mental or physical.
DISCHARGE:
termination of a person's employment by his or her employer.
DISCIPLINE:
action taken against an employee for misconduct or incompetence when other efforts (i.e., counseling) fail or when a single incident is so severe as to warrant it. In NYS service, disciplinary penalties can only be imposed after an employee has been formally charged and has exhausted his/her appeal rights. Disciplinary penalties range from official reprimands, suspension without pay, fines, loss of accrued leave credits, and reduction in grade, to dismissal from service. Except for cases of extreme misconduct, discipline, where required, should be progressive and consistent. An employee should be notified that a problem exists and given a chance to improve before being disciplined. For more information about discipline go to: Discipline.
DISCOVERY:
the legal term for the investigation phase after a complaint is filed and the defendant has answered.
DISCRIMINATION:
the act of distinguishing between and among different things. It is also a charge brought by people alleging the operation of prejudice. When discrimination is done in a way that disadvantages individuals because of accident of birth or condition, it is unlawful. Thus discrimination may also be a conclusion of the courts that plaintiffs have shown an adverse impact with regard to the employment of protected class persons and employers have failed to demonstrate business necessity.
DISCUSS:
exchange views for the purpose of arriving at a conclusion.
DISPARATE EFFECT or DISPARATE IMPACT:
the result of an employment policy, practice, or procedure that, in application, has less favorable consequences for an affirmative action group than for the dominant group.
DISPOSE:
get rid of.
DISSEMINATE:
spread or disperse information.
DISTRIBUTE:
deliver to proper destinations.
DISTRIBUTION RATE:
the degree (percentage) to which a given protected class is employed in the various job titles, job classes, and other units within the employing organization, and the degree to which individuals of a given protected class are involved in various employment transactions (for example, applications for employment, hiring, placement, promotion, separation, etc.).
DIVISION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (NYS):
Go to: NYS Division of Human Rights
DOT (Federal): Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
DRAFT:
prepare papers or documents in preliminary form.
DRY PROMOTION:
refers to an increase in responsibility and status without an increase in pay.
DUES CHECKOFF:
the privilege granted to the bargaining agent to have exclusive payroll deduction of membership dues.
DUTY:
several tasks which are related by some sequence of events.
EAP:
Employee Assistance Program. Programs designed with the goal of assisting employees and their family members to solve personal and work related problems which affect job performance.
EARMARK (NYS Class & Comp):
the term used when a position has been designated for restudy when vacant to determine its proper classification before being refilled.
EDUCATION:
concerned with increasing our general knowledge, understanding, and background. (See training) for contrast.
EEO: (See: Equal Employment Opportunity)
EEOC (Federal): (See: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission")
ELIGIBLE LIST (NYS CSL):
a certified list of candidates for a competitive title ranked in order of their respective final examination ratings, including seniority and veterans credits.
EMPIRE PLAN (NYS Health Insurance Option)
a health insurance option for New York State employees. For more information go to: The Empire Plan
EMPLOYEE (Federal):
person working for another person or an organization for compensation. In certain circumstances it is difficult to determine whether a person is an employee or an independent contractor. As a guide, see Contractor or Employee to see 20 factors provided by the Internal Revenue Service to assist employers in making this interpretation.
EMPLOYEE ORGANIZATION NYS Taylor Law):
means an organization of any kind having as its primary purpose the improvement of terms and conditions of employment of public employees.
EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 (Federal):
for information, go to: EPPA Employee Polygraph Protection Act
EMPLOYMENT PARITY:
when the proportion of affirmative action groups in the external labor market is equivalent to their proportion in the company work force without reference to classification.
EMPLOYMENT PROCESS:
under Title VII, the employment process includes recruitment, application flow, hiring, job placement, compensation, promotion, transfer, termination, shift assignments, geographical and departmental assignments, and all other such activities.
EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT (Federal) (ERISA):
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Does not apply directly to SUNY or public, as opposed to private, employers For more information, go to: ERISA
EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM (NYS):
a defined benefit retirement program for NYS and NYS municipal employees. For more information go to: Employees' Retirement System
EPPA (Federal): (See: Employee Polygraph Protection Act).
ENDORSE:
support or recommend.
ERS (NYS): See: Employees' Retirement System
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY.
civil rights requirement for all citizens to have equal opportunity for employment.
EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION (EEOC) (Federal):
federal agency responsible for administration of several statutes which prohibit discrimination; has power to subpoena witnesses, issue guidelines that have the force of law, render decisions, provide technical assistance to employers, provide legal assistance to complainants, etc. For more information go to: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
EQUAL PAY ACT OF 1963 (Federal):
makes it unlawful to pay wages to members of one sex at a rate lower than paid to members of the other sex for equal jobs that require equal skill, effort, and responsibility. Jobs must be substantially equal based on job content.
ERISA (Federal): (See Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974).
ESTABLISH:
bring into existence.
ESTIMATE:
forecast future requirements or happenings.
ETHICS (NYS)
usually a reference to New York State Ethics Commission which was established by the Public Officers' Law. Go to: NYS Ethics Commission for more information.
ETHNIC CATEGORIES (Federal):
  • American Indian or Alaskan Native; a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition;
  • Asian or Pacific Islander a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Sub-continent, or the Pacific Islands;
  • Black a person, not of Hispanic origin, having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa;
  • Hispanic a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race; or
  • White a person, not of Hispanic origin, having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.
EVALUATE:
determine or fix the value of. See Performance Evaluation for information about employee evaluations.
EXECUTE:
put into effect or carry out.
EXECUTIVE ORDER 6:
The New York State executive order giving the New York State Civil Service Commission President responsibility to enforce the State's policy of insuring full and equal employment opportunities for minorities, women, the disabled and Vietnam-era veterans. State agencies are required to submit written affirmative action plans to the President.
EXECUTIVE ORDER 68:
New York State executive order which authorized and encourages State agencies to establish alternate work schedules (i.e., flextime, 4 day workweek, etc.). Procedural guidelines for submitting alternative work schedule proposals are contained in Budget Bulletin G-1008, 5/1/78.
EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 (Federal):
requires affirmative action by government contractors. For more information go to: Executive Order 11246
EXEMPT CLASS (NYS CLS):
the following offices and positions shall be in the exempt class: (a) one secretary of each state department or division, temporary state commission or other state office; authorized by law to appoint a secretary; (b) the deputies of principal executive officers; (c) one secretary of each municipal board or commission; (d) one clerk and one deputy clerk if authorized by law, of each court; (e) all other subordinate offices or positions for the filling of which competitive or non-competitive examination may be found to be not practicable. (No office of position shall be deemed to be in the exempt class unless it is specifically named in such class in the civil service rules).
EXEMPT EMPLOYEES (Federal):
employees in jobs that are purely management, administrative, or professional that perform without close supervision and consequently, they are exempt from coverage under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Rules regarding overtime and wages do not apply.
EXERCISE:
to put into action, practice, or use; to make use of privileges or powers; to exert.
EXPEDITE:
accelerate the process or progress of.
EXPERT WITNESS:
an individual qualified by credentials to give opinion testimony. Although this term has to be limited to a specific application, generally, in test validation at least, a master's degree in psychology and experience in the field is required.
EXTERNAL LABOR AREA:
the geographic area from which an employer may reasonably be expected to recruit new workers. In a compliance sense, this total labor market has sub-markets within it, comprised of persons with the requisite skills, experience, etc. to fill given jobs.
EXTERNAL LABOR MARKET:
the civilian work force within an external labor area.
EXTRA LONGEVITY RATE (NYS Class & Comp):
salary resulting from the addition of two extra increments provided to employees who have rendered continuous and satisfactory service for ten years after having attained the normal maximum pay of their salary grade.
EXTRA SERVICE (NYS Payroll):
work performed by an employee in a payroll agency other than the payroll agency to which the employee is assigned regularly. See:


FACT-FINDING:
a formalized procedure in which a third party examines the cause and status of a dispute through oral and/or written presentation.
FACTOR COMPARISON:
a method of evaluating jobs on a systematic basis by comparing key jobs with each other on a pre-determined number of factors so that each key job is ranked in its relative order of importance on each factor. Factor values are determined by apportioning the current rate being paid for the job among the various factors. Ratings for all other jobs are determined by comparison with the key jobs on each factor; the sum of the factor values awarded is the job rate.
FACTOR POINT:
a quantitative method of evaluating jobs or groupings of jobs on a systematic basis using a pre-determined number of factors which are divided into a number of defined levels or degrees, each of which is assigned a value expressed in points. The sum of all the points awarded to the job determines its relative value among the others being evaluated.
FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT of 1938 (Federal):
law enacted to establish a minimum wage, to limit work hours, and to discourage oppressive child labor. Referred to as the Wage Hour Act because it ensures fair treatment of employees with respect to wages and hours. Act defines exempt and nonexempt employees. For more information go to:
FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (Federal)
Family Medical Leave Act. For more information, go to:
FINANCIAL EXIGENCY:
an imminent financial crisis which threatens the survival of the institution as a whole and which cannot be alleviated by less drastic means than layoffs.
FINDINGS OF FACT:
decision of a judge, jury, hearing officer, or hearing body on issues of fact in a dispute.
FLEXIBLE COMPENSATION/BENEFIT SYSTEM:
one in which each employee has a choice in the form of all or a portion of his/ her compensation package.
FLEXIBILITY LEGISLATION:
Refers to a 1986 act of the NYS Legislature which granted SUNY statutory authority, primarily fiscal, to exercise greater independence than other State agencies.
FLEXTIME:
allows employees to follow different schedules of work each day of the workweek.
FLSA (Federal): (See: Fair Labor Standards Act
FMLA (Federal): (See: Family Medical Leave Act).
FORMULATE:
develop or devise.
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (Federal):
establishes that any person has the right to request access to federal agency records or information. For more information go to: Freedom of Information
FTE:
Full Time Equivalent. An accounting term used to equate an employee or the total number of employees to a full time equivalent. For example, a part time employee who works one half of the time required of a full time employee would be counted as 1/2 FTE. (The total number of employees, headcount, will always be more than the total FTE if there are part time employees in the workforce).
FUNCTION:
work than can be distinguished from other work. The kind of action or activity proper to a person, employee, organizational unit, or institution. The primary purpose of a position within an organization.
FURNISH:
provide with what is needed; supply.


GED: (See: General Education Diploma).
GENERAL EDUCATION DIPLOMA:
General Educational Diploma - the GED is the high school equivalency certificate, generally recognized as equal to a high school diploma for all practical purposes.
GENERAL INCREASE (NYS Class & Comp):
a salary adjustment which requires the permanent or temporary revision of the salary schedule specified in Section 130 of the Civil Service Law, which governs the pay of most employees. Such an increase may be granted only by action of the Legislature with the approval of the Governor. Generally, a similar adjustment is provided for those employees compensated under other schedules or by some other method.
GEOGRAPHIC DIFFERENTIAL (NYS Payroll):
additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which may be authorized by the Director of Classification and Compensation subject to approval by the Director of the Budget. The pay differential may be prescribed for those employees in the same or related occupations who are employed in a particular geographic area or location.
GEOGRAPHIC FULL-TIME FACULTY MEMBER (SUNY):
a person serving on the faculty of a medical center who is not employed on a full-time basis for the purpose of fixing compensation payable by the State but all of whose professional services and activities are conducted at the medical center or its affiliated hospitals and are available to the State on a full-time basis for clinical and instructional purposes.
GOALS:
good faith quantitative objectives an employer voluntarily sets as the minimum progress that can be achieved within a certain time period through all-out efforts at outreach recruitment, validating selection criteria, creation of trainee positions, career ladders, etc. Setting goals and objectives are considered proper and legal responses to underutilization of minority groups by the various federal agencies.
GOER (NYS): (See: Governor's Office of Employee Relations).
GOOD CAUSE:
substantial or legally sufficient reason for doing something.
GOOD FAITH:
having no intention to seek an unfair advantage or to defraud another party; making an honest and sincere effort to fulfill obligations.
GOVERNOR'S OFFICE OF EMPLOYEE RELATIONS:
responsible for negotiating State-wide labor agreements and seeing that they are properly administered. Click here: GOER for more information.
GROUP OF CLASSES (NYS Class & Comp):
two or more closely related classes having a common basis of duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements but differing in some particular, such as the nature of specialization, which is essential from the standpoint of recruitment and selection and requires that each class in the group be treated individually. Such classes have the same basic title but are distinguished by a parenthetic


HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED:
those without jobs whose lack of useful job skills results in extended periods without employment.
HEALTH INSURANCE (NYS):
See: Health Insurance (NYSHIP)
HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
a law that protects people from loss of health insurance. For more information go to: Health Insurance Portability.
HEALTH INSURANCE PORTABILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY ACT OF 1996 (HIPAA)(Federal):
created changes to COBRA. For more information go to: HIPAA.
HIGHER MINIMUM (NYS Class & Comp):
a salary step above the normal minimum of a salary range, authorized by the Director of Classification and Compensation, used temporarily to recruit personnel in specific instances where the Director has determined that it is impracticable to recruit at the minimum salary.
HIPAA (Federal): (See: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
HIRING RATE STUDY (NYS Class & Comp):
an annual study of hiring rates paid for selected beginning level positions by large manufacturing and non-manufacturing employers throughout New York State. Has been conducted among the same employers each year since 1951 as one basis for comparison of New York State rates with those paid elsewhere.
HOLIDAY PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
additional compensation for time worked by an employee during regularly scheduled hours on a date observed as a holiday by the State.
HOOK: (See Parenthetic)


I-9 FORM (Federal:
form required of all appointees to verify their U.S. citizenship, or if they are aliens, their eligibility for employment in accordance with the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1986. See: I-9 requirements for more information.
IHRIM (Organization): See: International Association for Human Resources Information Management.
IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION ACT OF 1986 (Federal):
for information go to: INA Immigration and Naturalization Act
IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE (Federal):
for information about the INS, go to: Immigration and Naturalization Service.
IMPASSE:
a point in negotiations where the parties appear to be unable to reach an agreement.
IMPLEMENT:
carry out; execute a plan or program.
IMPROVE:
make something better.
INA (Federal): (See: Immigration and Naturalization Act).
INCENTIVE:
a part of compensation that recognizes the results of an employee's efforts. Reward designed to encourage performance and productivity.
INCIDENCE RATE:
a measurement of the degree to which a specific protected class is involved in any of the various steps of the employment process. If, out of a group of 100 black males, twenty-five are promoted, the incidence rate is 25 percent. As a measure of compliance, the incidence rate is compared with the degree to which the specific protected class is represented in the external labor market.
INCONVENIENCE PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which is authorized for employees who are required to work four or more hours between 6:00 P.M. and 6:00 A.M. in their regular tour of duty.
INCREASED MINIMUM: (See Higher Minimum)
INCREMENT (NYS Class & Comp):
an established salary increase between steps of a given salary grade, marking a steady progression from the minimum of the grade to the maximum.
INFORMATION:
data (facts and figures), organized so that they are useful to the manager.
INITIATE:
start or introduce.
INJUNCTION:
may either require that a certain practice be stopped or that something be done in the future; orders other actions, such as relief, to affected class members.
INSPECT:
critically examine for suitability.
INS (Federal): (See: Immigration and Naturalization Service).
INSTITUTIONAL SERVICES UNIT (ISU) (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiation unit in NY State service composed mostly of those classified service employees responsible for providing therapeutic and custodial care in the State's institutions, currently represented by the Civil Service Employees' Association, Inc. (CSEA). See related information at:
INSUBORDINATION:
the intentional and willful refusal to accept the valid authority of a supervisor ... the refusal to act on a direct order.
INTERNAL CONTROLS:
for a definition of internal controls and a review of some of the policies and procedures that make up SUNY's internal control system go to: Internal Controls
INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE (IRS)(Federal):
agency of the federal government that is responsible for the administration of tax statutes and the collection of taxes. For more information, go to: Internal Revenue Service
INTEREST ARBITRATION(NYS Taylor Law):
involves use of an arbitrator to resolve an impasse in contract negotiations.
INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (IHRIM):
an association of professionals involved in managing human resource information. For more information go to: International Association of HRIM.
INTERNATIONAL PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION (IPMA):
a professional organization. For more information go to: International Personnel Management Association.
INTERPRET:
explain something to others.
INTERROGATORIES:
written questions drawn up and served on an opposing party with a prescribed time period to answer. The party must then serve answers to the questions under oath. Sometimes used in the deposition procedure.
INVESTIGATE:
study through close examination or systematic inquiry.
IPMA (Organization): (See: International Personnel Management Association).
IRS (Federal): If you really don't know, go to: Internal Revenue Service.
ISSUE:
put forth or distribute officially.
ISU (NYS Taylor Law): (See Institutional Services Unit).
ITEM NUMBER (NYS Budget): (See: Line Item Number)


JOB:
one or more positions within an organization. A job constitutes the smallest unit of the organizational structure into which the activities of the enterprise can be divided.
JOB AUDIT: (See Desk Audit)
JOB DESCRIPTION:
a written summary of tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.
JOB DESIGN:
consideration of the content, functions, and relationships of jobs directed toward the accomplishment of organizational purposes and satisfaction of the personal needs of individual job holders.
JOB ENLARGEMENT:
increases the tasks performed and tries to eliminate boredom.
JOB ENRICHMENT:
program designed to increase worker satisfaction derived from the work itself.
JOB EVALUATION:
the systematic determination of the relative worth of jobs within the organization, which results in a pay system within the organization.
JOB SHARING:
dividing full time jobs into two or more positions often without particular regard for how the full time job is divided.
JOB SPECIFICATION:
the minimum skills, education, and experience necessary for an individual to perform a job.
JOB SPLITTING:
dividing the tasks of a single job into two entirely separate part time positions.
JOB SUMMARY:
one to three statements which describe the essence of the job.
JURISDICTIONAL CLASSIFICATION (NYS CSL):
means the assignment of positions in the classified service to the competitive, non-competitive, exempt, or labor classes.
JURY TRIAL:
more formal than a bench trial; a jury hears the case.


KEY RESULT AREA:
a distinct and important function in the operation of an organization.


LABOR CLASS (NYS CSL):
the labor class shall comprise all unskilled laborers in the service of the state and each of its civil divisions except those whose positions can be examined for competitively.
LAYOFF:
a layoff separates surplus employees from the payroll.
LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM (NYS):
See: Leave Donation Program
LINE AUTHORITY:
empowers the supervisor with the right to command subordinates.
LINE FUNCTION:
any function that is vital and contributes directly toward the accomplishment of the major organizational objective.
LINE ITEM NUMBER (NYS PAYROLL):
the unique number assigned to a position to identify it for payroll, accounting, and budget certificate purposes.
LITIGATION:
a judicial controversy; lawsuits.
LOCATION PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
additional compensation granted to an employee whose principal place of employment or official station is located in the city of New York or in the county of Rockland, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk or Monroe.
LONGEVITY RATE (NYS Class & Comp):
salary resulting from the addition of one extra increment provided to employees who have rendered continuous and satisfactory service for five years after having attained the normal maximum pay of their salary grade.
LOST TIME (NYS PAYROLL):
employee absence not covered by allowable leave credits results in a lost-time pay deduction.


MAINTAIN:
keep in an existing/current state.
MAKING WHOLE:
award of back pay employees would have received but for the effects of unlawful practice.
MANAGEMENT:
accomplishing the objectives of the organization through assigned resources.
MANAGEMENT/CONFIDENTIAL (NYS TAYLOR LAW):
persons designated by PERB as managerial or confidential are excluded from coverage of the Taylor Law. Such persons are not eligible to be represented by an employee organization for the purpose of collective negotiations. They cannot belong to or hold office in an employee organization that represents or seeks to represent public employees employed by the public employer. Criteria for designation as managerial are:
  1. formulates policy;
  2. may reasonably be required on behalf of the employer to assist directly in preparation for and conduct of collective negotiations; and
  3. has a major role in administration of agreements or in personnel administration not routine or clerical and requiring exercise of independent judgment. See related information at:

Confidential employees assist or act in confidential capacity to managerial persons who have a labor relations responsibility. See related information at:

MANAGER:
proactive, rather than reactive, people who are responsible for planning and controlling.
MANDAMUS:
an order issued by a court to a private or municipal corporation; an executive, judicial, or administrative officer; or to an inferior court commanding the performance of a particular act with the responsibility of the latter party.
M/C: (See Management/Confidential)
MEDIATION:
the intercession of a neutral into a dispute for the purpose of aiding the parties to come to an agreement. The mediator serves as a catalyst, as well as a liaison between the parties, to stimulate both sides toward settlement.
MEDICARE (Federal):
medicare provides health insurance to people age 65 and over and those who have permanent kidney failure and certain people with disabilities. For more information go to: Medicare.
MENTAL HEALTH PARITY ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
a new law that creates new demands on HMOs and other health insurance programs that include mental health benefits. For more information go to: Mental Health Parity Act.
MERIT:
determined by job performance and employee potential for development.
MERIT SYSTEM:
a system which attempts to match people with jobs based upon the merit, qualifications, and fitness of the people to perform the tasks, duties, responsibilities, and functions of the organization. To the extent possible, merit and fitness are determined by competitive examination.
MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS (NYS Class & Comp):
education, training, and/or experience requirements denoting the minimum standards that all candidates are required to possess to give reasonable assurance that they can perform satisfactorily.
MINIMUM WAGE (Federal):
the minimum hourly rate an employee may be paid for employment in the United States by federal statute. For more information go to: Minimum Wage; also, for more history of the minimum wage click here.
MONITOR:
watch, observe, or check for a specific purpose.


NACUBO (Organization): (See National Assocition of College and University Business Officers).
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS OFFICERS (NACUBO):
a professional organization of college/university business officers. For more information go to: National Association of College and University Business Officers.
NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE (NCQA):
a professional organization that evaluates and accredits managed care plans including HMOs. For more information or to check the rating for a particular managed care plan go to: National Committee for Quality Assurance.
NCQA (Organization): (See National Committee for Quality Assurance).
NEGOTIATE:
confer with others with an eye to reaching agreement.
NEGOTIATING UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiating unit is the grouping of employees for the purpose of collective negotiations. When it is agreed or determined which employees shall make up a unit, the employees then select the employee organization they want to represent them in negotiations. In New York State the groupings are usually determined by, the Public Employees' Relations Board, on the basis of job class.
NEWBORNS AND MOTHERS' HEALTH PROTECTION ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
a new law that, among other things, regulates the period of hospital stay for newborns and mothers. For more information, go to: Newborns and Mothers Health Protection.
NEW YORK STATE:
links to New York State governmental agencies and departments may be found at: New York State.
NON-COMPETITIVE CLASS (NYS CSL):
the non-competitive class shall include all positions that are not in the exempt or the labor class and for which it is found by the commission having jurisdiction to be not practicable to ascertain the merit and fitness of applicants by competitive examination.
NON-CONTRIBUTORY PENSION PLAN:
pension plan financed entirely by employer.
NON-STATUTORY OR NS (NYS Class & Comp):
designates a position, the salary of which is not fixed by statute but is established by the Director of the Division of Budget.
NOTICE REQUIREMENTS (SUNY):
professional staff appointed to term appointments in SUNY have to be given appropriate advance notice if their term appointments are not going to be renewed. For specific policy requirements go to: Notice Requirements.
NOTIFY:
make known to.
NS: (See Non-statutory)


OBJECTIVES:
similar to goals, a good faith effort to meet numerical goals through modifications in employment procedures and practice. Goals and objectives are set after careful external and internal labor analysis.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (Federal):
a federal act that sets and regulates health and safety standards for the work place. For more information go to:
OCCUPATIONAL PARITY:
when the proportion of affirmative action group employees in all occupational levels is equivalent to their respective availability in the qualified external labor market. Eventually, with the goal of equal educational and training opportunities, employment parity and occupational parity may be equal.
OCCUPATIONAL SURVEY (NYS Class & Comp):
a study of all positions in a given class, series of classes, or occupational group in whatever departments or agencies they may be located.
OFCC (Federal):
Office of Federal Contract Compliance - has set guidelines for all federal contractors with respect to nondiscrimination and affirmative action. For more information go to: Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP)
Office of the State Comptroller (OSC):
The Office of the State Comptroller in New York State is responsible for the audit and control function, for payroll auditing, for legal opinions, and for managing the NYS defined benefit retirement programs. For more information, go to: Office of the State Comptroller
"OFFICE" TITLE (NYS Class & Comp):
a title which differs from the classified title assigned to a job and which is used to describe a particular position for other than payroll, budget, or official civil service purposes. For example, a Head Clerk position might have an "office" title of Office Supervisor.
OJT:
on-the -job-training is job instruction given by an employee's supervisor or experienced employee. After being shown how to do the tasks and duties, the employee works closely with the trainer until the job is performed at an expected level of performance.
OPEN-COMPETITIVE LIST (NYS CSL):
a certified list of appointment eligibles containing the names of candidates who passed an open competitive examination for a title ranked by examination scores. Transfer lists, preferred lists, reemployment rosters, and promotional lists, if any, take precedence. (See Eligible List).
OPERATE:
perform an activity or series of activities.
OPERATIONAL SERVICES UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of craft workers, maintenance and repair personnel and machine operators, currently represented by the Civil Service Employees' Association, Inc., (CSEA). See related information at:
ORGANIZATION:
a structural framework which establishes the basis for determining the responsibility, authority, and relationships of the members of the enterprise. (how the resources are arranged to meet objectives). Organizational design should address function, coordination, authority, responsibility, and accountability.
OSC (State): (See: Office of the State Comptroller).
OSHA (Federal): (See: Occupational Safety and Health Act).
OSU (NYS Taylor Law): (See Operational Services Unit)
OTHER STATUTE (OS) (NYS Class & Comp):
designates a position, the salary of which is established by a statute other than the Civil Service Law.
OUT-OF-TITLE WORK (NYS Class & Comp):
duties performed by an incumbent of a position which are not appropriate to the class to which the position has been assigned.
OVERTIME SERVICE (NYS PAYROLL):
shall mean hours worked in excess of The required 40 or 37 1/2 hours in the basic workweek as the case may be. Overtime in excess of 40 hours must be paid at a time and one-half rate. Employees whose basic workweek is 37 1/2 hours accrue compensatory time for hours worked in excess of 37 1/2 hours but not in excess of 40 hours in a basic workweek.


PARENTHETIC (NYS Class & Comp):
a descriptive designation in parentheses following a common base title, to distinguish a specialty within a given field, as Senior Personnel Technician (Classification), Senior Personnel Technician (Examinations), etc. Sometimes referred to as a "HOOK" placed after a base title.
PARITY:
the long-term goal of affirmative action, reached when employment and occupational parity are identical.
PARTICIPATE:
take part in.
PARTICIPATION RATE:
(1) the percentage of incumbents of a job title, class, department, or organizational unit (including the whole organization) who belong to a given protected class; and (2) the percentage of individuals involved in an employee process transaction (for example, application for employment, hiring, placement, promotion, separation) who belong to a given protected class.
PAY:
the monetary compensation paid an employee for services. May be wages or salary.
PAY EQUITY or SALARY EQUITY (Federal)
concept that pay (wages/salary) should be "equal" for jobs having "equal" job content. (See Equal Pay Act of 1963).
PAYROLL DEDUCTION:
an after-tax deduction from an employee's pay check for payment of taxes, insurance premiums, unions dues, health insurance premiums, etc. To see the current deductions or locate deduction codes for deductions currently authorized on the New York State payroll system go to: NYS Deduction Codes.
PERB (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Public Employment Relations Board).
PENSION AND WELFARE BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION (Federal):
a federal administrative agency with responsibility for administering pension and welfare benefit laws. Information on changes in Health Care Law and other information on pensions and benefits can be found at: Pension and Welfare Benefits.
PERFORM:
fulfill or carry out some action.
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: (see PERFORMANCE EVALUATION).
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION:
a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the workplace, normally including both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job performance. For more information about evaluation go to:
PERMANENT APPOINTMENT (NYS CSL):
an appointment to an unencumbered NYS CSL) position of a candidate who has met all of the merit and fitness requirements for such appointment, including passing the necessary competitive examination and being reachable for appointment from an eligible list, if necessary. An appointment other than a Contingent Permanent, Temporary, or Provisional appointment. After completion of a probationary term a permanent appointment continues until retirement, layoff, termination for incompetence or misconduct, resignation, or death.
PERMANENT APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
an appointment of a professional employee in a professional title, except those titles listed in Appendix A of the SUNY Policies of the Board of Trustees, which shall continue until a change in such title, resignation, retirement, or termination. (See: Tenure).
PER SE:
a violation for which there is no defense.
PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND WORK OPPORTUNITY RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1996 (Federal):
among mandates, requires States to report all new hires to the Federal Parent Locator Service by 10/1/97. States must conduct data matches between the case registry and new hire directory by 5/1/98. Employers must report new hires within 20 days after the hire or first pay. Employers have the option of using the W-4 form or an equivalent to report to the State. For more information see: Welfare Reform
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (NYS Pers Manual):
there are many definitions of personnel management, but all basically say that it is: attracting and developing competent employees and creating the organizational conditions which result in their full utilization and encourages them to put forth their best efforts.
PERT:
simultaneous scheduling technique resulting in time graph. Project Evaluation Review Technique.
PLACE:
locate and choose positions for.
PLAINTIFF:
the person who initiates litigation.
PLANNING:
the process of deciding what objectives to pursue during a future time period and what to do to achieve those objectives. (object statement, activities, resources, schedule).
POINT FACTOR: (See Factor Point)
POLICIES:
guides to management thinking which help management achieve the organizations objectives. For a link to SUNY Policies go to: Internal Control
POLITICAL PATRONAGE:
appointment of public employees by the political party in power on the basis of political party loyalty and service rather than the candidates qualifications. (See Spoils System).
POSITION (NYS Class & Comp):
an assigned group of duties and responsibilities, temporary or permanent, requiring the full-time or part-time employment of one person. It may be occupied or vacant.
POSITION CLASSIFICATION (NYS CSL):
a grouping together, under common and descriptive titles, of positions that are substantially similar in the essential character and scope of their duties and responsibilities and in the qualification requirements therefor, OR the act of writing a job description and processing the paper work necessary to classify a position.
POSITION RANKING:
a method of comparing jobs on a "whole job" basis for the purpose of ranking such jobs in a hierarchy from highest to lowest. Usually the basis for ranking is unspecified but frequently includes consideration of organizational level of the position, perceived importance of the position to the organizations mission, personal status of the incumbent, etc.
PR-50 DOWNGRADE (NYS PAYROLL):
a transaction required by the NYS Department of Audit and Control when an appointee is appointed to a lesser title, rank, or class than the title, rank, or class of the budgeted position to which the appointment is being made.
PRACTICE:
perform work repeatedly to gain proficiency. Also, the habitual, normal, or customary performance, operating procedure, or method.
PREFERRED LIST (NYS CSL):
a certified list of employees laid off from a title ranked by their seniority date. Preferred list candidates have absolute preference for positions based upon the "rule of one". Appointing officers must either reinstate the number one eligible willing to accept appointment or leave the position vacant. (see Eligible List).
PREMIUM OVERTIME PAY:
additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which may be authorized by the Director of the Budget for employees who are required to work beyond a normal work week, but who are ineligible to accrue overtime credits. PREPARE: make ready for a particular purpose.
PRIMA FACIE:
violation where evidence is shown that an employment practice has an adverse impact affecting an individual as a member of a similarly affected class covered by Title VII. It shifts the burden to the defendant. The elements necessary to support the claim have been presented and unless evidence can be presented to rebut the previous arguments, the claim will be supported. In the EEO area, statistics of underutilization can be sufficient to make a prima facie case for discrimination. It is then the responsibility of the employer to justify those statistics through "business necessity", or BFOQs, etc.
PRIVACY ACT (Federal):
establishes rules for records maintenance and disclosure. For more information go to: Privacy Act
PROBABLE CAUSE:
reasonable on the basis of the evidence but not certain or proved. Before initiating court action, the EEOC makes a determination of no cause, probable cause, or cause. In incidents of probable cause, pretrial negotiations and conciliation generally resolve the issue before the case can get to court.
PROBATIONARY TERM (NYS CSL):
every permanent appointment from an open competitive list and every original permanent appointment to the noncompetitive, exempt, or labor class shall be subject to a probationary period of not less than 26 weeks. If the probationer's service is less than satisfactory, employment may be terminated any time after the completion of eight weeks.
PROCEDURES:
serve to implement policies by prescribing the course of action to be taken in the administration of the policies. PROCEED: begin to carry out an action. For a link to the SUNY Procedures Manual go to: Internal Controls.
PROCESS:
subject something to special treatment; handle in accordance with prescribed procedure.
PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEE (SUNY):
an employee in the Professional Services Negotiating Unit, other than an employee with academic rank or qualified academic rank.
PROFESSIONAL OBLIGATION (SUNY):
the professional obligation of an employee consistent with his or her academic rank or professional title, shall include teaching, research, University service, and other duties and responsibilities required of him or her during the term of the professional obligation. Except for part-time or temporary employment where the obligation may be less, the term of professional obligation will be calendar year, or academic year, or college year.
PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SERVICES UNIT (PS&T) (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiating unit in NYS service composed primarily of professional classified service personnel, often with professional experience or a college degree prerequisite; currently represented by the Public Employee Federation (PEF). See related information at:
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES UNIT (PSU) (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiating unit in NYS service composed primarily of academic employees and professional employees of the State University of New York, currently represented by United University Professions, Inc., (UUP). See related information at:
PROFESSIONAL STAFF:
all persons occupying positions designated by the Chancellor as being in the unclassified service.
PROFESSIONAL TITLE (SUNY):
the title of a position in the Professional Services Negotiating Unit, other than a position of academic or qualified academic rank, as shown on the budget certificate for the position on file with the State Director of the Budget.
PROMOTE:
advance to a higher level or position generally resulting in increasing demands in terms of skills, abilities, and responsibilities; also to support or try to sell as in an idea.
PROMOTIONAL LIST (NYS CSL):
a certified list of appointment eligibles containing the names of candidates who successfully passed a promotional examination for a title ranked by examination scores. Promotional lists take precedence over open-competitive lists but are subordinate to preferred lists. (see Eligible List).
PROPOSE:
declare a plan or intention.
PROTECTED CLASS:
legally identified groups (by race, color, sex, and national origin) that are specifically protected by statute against employment discrimination.
PROVIDE:
supply what is needed.
PROVISIONAL APPOINTMENT (NYS CLS):
a stopgap appointment to an unencumbered permanent position which may be made when no appropriate eligible list of at least three persons willing to accept appointment is available to fill a vacancy in the competitive class.
PS&T (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Professional, Scientific and Technical Services Unit:)
PSU (NYS Taylor Law): (See Professional Services Unit)
PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS BOARD-PERB (NYS Taylor Law):
a board created under the Taylor Law (NYS Public Employees' Fair Employment Act, Article 14 of the New York State Civil Service Law, Sections 200 et seq.) to serve as an independent neutral agency to administer the law. Go to: PERB to visit its website.


QUALIFIED ACADEMIC RANK (SUNY):
rank held by those members of the academic staff having titles of lecturer, or titles of academic rank preceded by the designations "clinical", or "visiting" or other similar designations. Service in qualified academic rank does not count in meeting the service requirements for tenure.
QUALITY CIRCLES:
groups of 8-10 employees who are called together to work on common problems in the work place.
QUALS: (See Minimum Qualifications)
QUOTAS:
fixed hiring and promotion rates based on race, sex, etc., which must be met at all costs and do not take into account or consideration the availability, education, or training of the external labor market of protected class members, or the employer's internal labor situation with respect to projected work force requirements. Quotas are considered to be last resort measures available only for the courts to impose when good faith efforts do not exist.
QWL:
Quality of Working Life refers to the extent to which employee's personal needs and values are met through their work.


RANK IN PERSON:
the method of establishing pay primarily on the basis of an employee's qualifications with less consideration, or none, given to the actual duties and responsibilities performed by the employee.
REACHABLE:
a person ranking by test score among the top three on an eligible list who are willing and able to accept appointment to a position in the competitive class. (see RULE OF THREE).
REALLOCATE(NYS Class & Comp):
to change the existing allocation of a class to a different salary grade in the schedule.
REASSIGNMENT (NYS CSL):
the change, without further examination, of a permanent employee from one position to a position in the same title under the jurisdiction of the same appointing authority.
REBUTTAL:
an answer to an argument, a primie facie case, or a presumption.
RECALL (NYS PAYROLL):
an employee eligible to earn overtime compensation who is recalled to work overtime, after having completed his/ her scheduled work period and left the scheduled work station, is considered to have worked a minimum of one-half day for the purpose of computing overtime compensation. An employee working a 40 hour week is credited with 4 hours; and employee working a 37 1/2 hour week, with 3 3/4 hours.
RECLASSIFY (NYS Class & Comp):
to reassign a position to a different class based upon a reexamination of the duties and responsibilities of the position.
RECOGNITION (NYS TAYLOR LAW):
a public employer may voluntarily recognize an employee organization as negotiating agent.
RECOMMEND:
advise or counsel a course of action; offer or suggest for adoption.
RECRUITMENT:
the process of acquiring a pool of applicants who are available and qualified to fill positions in the organization.
RED CIRCLED EMPLOYEES:
the term red circled is used to identify employees who are currently being paid more than the maximum of their pay grade due to longevity or specialized skills possessed by the individual.
RELEVANT LABOR POOL:
the total number of incumbent employees who are in a position for a specific promotion, or all candidates who could conceivably be considered for a promotion.
REMAND:
to send back. For example, if a court of appeals finds further action is necessary in a case or if further testimony is needed to decide the case, it will remand the case to the lower court.
REPORT:
give an account of; furnish information or data.
REPRESENT:
act in place of or for.
RESEARCH:
inquire into a specific matter from several sources.
RESOURCES:
capital, materials, equipment, people.
RESPONDANT:
that person against whom an administrative charge of discrimination is filed.
RESPONSIBILITY:
what must be done with delegated authority. A recruiter with authority to hire is responsible for keeping department adequately staffed. (see Organization).
RESUME':
a brief statement of the personal, educational, and professional qualifications and experience of a candidate for a position.
RETRENCHMENT (SUNY):
termination of the employment of any academic or professional employee during any appointment other than a temporary appointment as a result of financial exigency, reallocation of resources, reorganization, or curtailment of programs or functions. (see LAYOFFS).
REVIEW:
examine or reexamine.
REVISE:
rework in order to correct or improve.
RIF:
Reduction In Force (see LAYOFF)
RULE OF THREE (NYS CSL):
the "rule of three" requires that appointment or promotion to classified service positions in the competitive class from an eligible list must be made by the selection of one of the three highest ranking eligibles willing to accept appointment.


SALARY:
pay which is usually stated as a monthly or annual figure and is monetary compensation for employee contributions without regard to the specific hours required of them to complete their responsibilities.
SALARY SURVEY (NYS Class & Comp):
a study of salaries paid by other employers for work comparable to that of selected classes in New York State Service.
SALARY CHARTS OR TABLES: (See salary charts)
SCHEDULE:
plan a timetable.
SCHEDULE OF POSITIONS (SOP) (NYS Budget): (See Certificate of Approval)
SCHEDULED OVERTIME (NYS BUDGET):
overtime which is susceptible to scheduling and approval in advance of need.
SCOPE:
range of duties of a job or how long it takes a worker to complete the total task.
SECURE:
gain possession of; make safe.
SECURITY SERVICES UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of security personnel such as correction officers, campus public safety officers, and institution safety officers, currently represented by Council 82. See related information at:
SEC. SUPR. (NYS Taylor Law): (See: Security Supervisors Unit).
SECURITY SUPERVISORS UNIT (NYS Taylor Law):
a negotiating unit in NYS service composed of supervisors of corrections and safety employees, mostly lieutenants, currently represented by Council 82. See related information at:
SELECTION:
process of choosing qualified individuals who are available to fill positions in the organization.
SENIORITY:
refers to an employee's length of continuous service with the State or at a campus; sometimes may also refer to an employee's time in title or rank, or appointment type, or length of service in a position or positions represented by a particular bargaining unit.
SERIES SPECIFICATION (NYS Class & Comp):
a specification describing all classes which are closely related to each other in kind of work, regardless of dissimilarity in location, title, or jurisdictional classification.
SHIFT PAY DIFFERENTIAL (NYS PAYROLL) :
additional compensation over an employee's basic annual salary which may be authorized by the Director of Classification and Compensation subject to approval by the Director of the Budget. The pay differential may be prescribed for those employees on a night shift, four or more hours of which fall between 6:00 P.M. and 6:00 A.M. The authorization is for a particular position and may be within a specific geographical area.
SHRM (Organization): (See: Society for Human Resource Management.
SIGN:
formally approve a document by affixing a signature.
SMSA:
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area - the area of employee recruitment against which parity and utilization levels are compared. The SMSA may vary depending upon level of job class, availability of applicants, location of work station, etc.
SOCIAL SECURITY (Federal):
a federal retirement and disability income program. For more information go to:
SOCIETY FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT(SHRM):
a professional organizational personnel managers. For more information go to: Society for Human Resource Management.
SOP (NYS Budget):
schedule of positions. (See: Certificate of Approval
SPAN OF CONTROL:
refers to the number of key result areas for which a position is accountable.
SPECIFICATION (NYS Class & Comp):
a written description of a class, covering duties, responsibilities, minimum qualification requirements, and other distinguishing features.
SPECIFY:
state precisely in detail or name explicitly.
SPOILS SYSTEM:
a system under which political party loyalty and service were the "tests" for obtaining government jobs.
SS (Federal): (See: Social Security).
SSU (See: Security Services Unit).
STAFF AUTHORITY:
is supportive and may be defined as the right to advise and provide service to other organizational members.
STAFF FUNCTION:
functions that do not contribute directly toward the basic objective but rather do so indirectly by facilitating and assisting in the performance of line work.
STAFFING:
involves determining future needs, and recruiting, selecting, and training the organization's work force.
STANDARD:
an established criterion or model against which actual results can be counted.
STANDBY ON-CALL PAY (NYS PAYROLL):
additional compensation authorized by the Director of the Budget for employees eligible to accrue overtime credits who are required to be available for immediate recall, and who must be prepared to return to duty within a limited period of time.
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK (SUNY):
the State University of New York System. For more information go to: State University of New York.
STIPULATION:
an agreement between the opposing parties, somewhat akin to a contract, identifying which facts or issues are not disputed. Used as a time-saving device to narrow a case down to essential matters.
STRATEGIC PLAN:
long term plans.
SUBMIT:
yield or present for the discretion or judgment of others.
SUBPOENA:
an order of the court commanding individuals (or documents) to appear and give testimony. Derived from the Latin sub (under) and poena (penalty) because failure to appear may be considered contempt of court. A subpoena for documents is known as a duces tecum.
SUMMARY JUDGMENT:
could be issued by the court at the point where there is no dispute of material facts.
SUNY (Organization): (See: State University of New York).
SUPERVISE:
oversee, direct, inspect or guide the work of others with responsibility for meeting performance standards. See Supervise for additional information.
SYSTEMATIC DISCRIMINATION:
equal employment opportunity may be denied as the inevitable consequence of some established business practice, persisting over a period of time, rather than of a specific overt action against an aggrieved party. Such a result of the "system" is systemic discrimination and has been the root of most Title VII settlements to date. Inadvertent and usually unintentional, the disparate effect produced by systemic discrimination constitutes a prime area or vulnerability for most businesses.


TACTICAL PLAN:
short term detailed plan; usually for one year.
TASK:
a distinct work activity which has an identifiable beginning and end.
TAX DEPARTMENT (NYS)
Go to: NYS Tax Department
TB SERVICE or TBS (NYS Class & Comp) :
a parenthetic designation attached to the title of a position the incumbent of which works in close and regular association with patients having active tuberculosis. In recognition of the hazard of infection, such positions receive a salary grade higher than that of other positions classified to the same basic title.
TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM (NYS):
a defined benefit retirement program for NYS teachers. For more information go to: Teachers' Retirement System
TECHNOLOGICAL UNEMPLOYMENT:
loss of jobs through the development of new machines or techniques of work.
TEMPORARY APPOINTMENT (NYS CSL):
an appointment to a position which is established for only a temporary, short duration, or an appointment to a permanent position which is temporarily vacant.
TEMPORARY APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
an appointment which may be terminated at any time. Temporary appointments ordinarily shall be given only when service is to be part-time, voluntary, or anticipated to be for a period of one year or less, or when an employee's initial appointment is made to a position vacated by a professional employee who is serving a probationary appointment in another position. A temporary appointment is also appropriate whenever a position has been vacated by an employee on an approved leave.
TENURE:
status granted to an employee, usually after completion of a probationary period, assuring him or her of the permanency of his or her employment.
TERM APPOINTMENT (SUNY):
except as provided in section 6 of Title D of Article XI of the SUNY Policies of the Board of Trustees, a term appointment shall be an appointment for a specified period of not more than three years which shall automatically expire at the end of the period unless terminated earlier because of resignation, retirement, or termination.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT (NYS TAYLOR LAW):
means salaries, wages, hours and other terms and conditions of employment.
THEORY X:
theory that people do not like to work and therefore must be forced to do so. (Douglas McGregor).
THEORY Y:
theory that people want to be free to accomplish something and do not want to be strictly controlled.
THEORY Z:
theory that people will work better if they have an opportunity to participate in decision making in their organizations. (William Ouchi) (see Quality Circles).
TIMETABLES:
consecutive time (usually in affirmative action, a timetable covers one year) during which the specific quantitative goals and objectives for that period are to be met and evaluations of progress made before beginning the subsequent timetable with its own specific goals and objectives.
TITLE (NYS Class & Comp):
the "label" used to officially designate a class. It is descriptive of the work performed and its relative level.
TITLE I (Federal):
provides criminal penalties for interferences with an individual's employment rights because of race, color, religion, or ethnic origin.
TITLE STRUCTURE CHANGE (NYS Class & Comp):
reclassification of one or more classes to a new title for the purpose of improving State title structure, involving no change in duties or responsibilities. The elimination of a title by substitution of a more appropriate title without any change in duties or responsibilities of the positions involved.
TITLE VI (Federal):
prohibits discrimination in federally assisted programs. For more information go to: Title VI
TITLE VII (Federal):
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (as amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972). The first legislation to make it an unlawful employment practice to discriminate on the basis of race, color, sex, or national origin. All other federal and state EEO legislation is patterned after and/or supportive of Title VII.
TITLE IX (Federal):
grants authority to the US Attorney General to intervene in Civil Rights cases of general public interest.
TITLE IX EDUCATIONAL AMENDMENTS OF 1972 (Federal):
prohibits sex discrimination in educational programs that receive federal assistance. For more information go to: Title IX (Sex Discrimination)
TRAIN:
teach or guide others in order to bring work up to a predetermined standard.
TRAINING:
any process by means of which skill and knowledge are increased to do a particular job.
TRAINING COUNCIL (NYS):
Go to: NYS Training Council
TRANSCRIBE:
transfer data from one form of record to another or from one method of preparation to another without changing the nature of the data.
TRANSFER:
a transfer involves an employee's reassignment to a job with similar pay, status, duties, and responsibilities. Whereas a promotion involves upward movement, a transfer entails horizontal movement from one job to another. In New York State, service transfer means the change, without further examination, of a permanent employee from a position under the jurisdiction of one appointing authority to a position under the jurisdiction of another appointing authority or to a position in a different title in the same or a higher salary grade under the jurisdiction of the same appointing authority.
TRS (NYS): See: Teachers' Retirement System


UNCLASSIFIED SERVICE (NYS CLS):
the unclassified service shall comprise of the following:
  1. all elective offices;
  2. all offices filled by election or appointment by the legislature on joint ballot;
  3. all officers and employees of the state legislature, and all officers and employees of any other legislative body whose principal functions and duties are directly related to the performance of the legislative functions of such body;
  4. all offices filled by appointment by the governor;
  5. the head or heads of any department of the government who vested with authority, direction and control over a department, and who have power and authority to appoint and remove officers and employees therein;
  6. all members, officers, and employees of boards of elections;
  7. all persons employed by any title whatsoever as members of the teaching and supervisory staff of a school district, board of cooperative educational services or county vocational education and extension board, as certified by the state commission by the commissioner of education;
  8. all positions in the state university in the professional service as defined in subdivision three of section three hundred fifty-five-a of the education law, (See Section 355(a) which positions shall be determined by the chancellor of the state university and certified by him to the civil service commission;
  9. all positions in community colleges in the professional services;
  10. all persons, other than persons covered under paragraphs (g), (h), or (i) above, whose principal functions are teaching or the supervision of teaching in a public school, academy or college;
  11. all positions in the professional service in the New York State School for the Blind and the New York State School for the Deaf.
USERRA (Federal): (See: Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act
UNDER-EMPLOYED:
those who have jobs that provide incomes below minimal acceptable levels.
UNDERUTILIZATION:
terms used to describe a lower number of affirmative action group employees than parity would predict. Once underutilization is quantitatively established, the burden of proof rests with the employer to demonstrate that the underutilization is the legitimate effect of BFOQ and valid criteria of business necessity.
UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 (Federal):
federal statute that provides certain civilian employment and reemployment rights when military personnel separate from service. For information go to: USERRA Uniformed Services Rights
UNITY OF COMMAND:
no position should be accountable to more than one other position for the same activity (key result area).
UNSCHEDULED OVERTIME (NYS Budget):
overtime which is necessitated by emergency conditions which cannot be anticipated in advance.


VALIDITY:
the extent to which a test, criterion, or qualification measures the trait (some performance ability) for which it is being used, rather than some other trait. "Business necessity" considerations are addressed to the usefulness of the test in predicting job performance and the minimum cut-off scores.
VARIABLE HOURS:
employees have a wide latitude in defining their hours to be worked.
VARIABLE MINIMUM: (see HIGHER MINIMUM)
VERIFY:
confirm or establish authenticity; substantiate.
VESTED:
protected or held by a person; ownership. (i.e., an employee who has met service requirements for vesting his or her retirement benefit has a right to a retirement benefit from his/her employer even if separation from service occurs before the employee is actually eligible to retire).
VETERANS CREDITS (NYS CSL):
qualifying disabled veterans who pass competitive examinations are given ten points additional credits on their examination scores in open-competitive examinations and five points in promotional examinations. Non-disabled qualifying veterans receive five points and two points respectively. Veterans also have right of preference in retention in the event of a reduction in force (RIF) in the competitive class.
VIETNAM ERA VETERANS READJUSTMENT ACT of 1974 (Federal)
requires employers to take affirmative action to employ and advance disabled veterans and qualified veterans of the Vietnam era.
VITAE:
a brief biographical statement of a person's career.
VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION ACT of 1973 (Federal)
requires federal contractors to take affirmative action to employ and promote qualified handicapped persons.


WAGES:
pay for services rendered by employees which is directly related to time (hours) worked.
WORK SIMPLIFICATION:
the process of designing routine tasks so that employee controlled machines can perform them.
WORKERS COMPENSATION (NYS):
Insurance protection for employees injured on the job. See: NYS Workers' Compensation Board and The State Insurance Fund.
WORKWEEK (NYS Budget):
a regularly recurring period of 168 hours in the form of seven consecutive 24-hour periods. A workweek need not coincide with the calendar week - it may begin any day of the week and any hour of the day. Each workweek stands alone. Once fixed, however, it must remain the same unless any change is intended to be permanent.


X


Y


ZIP CODE (Federal):
a mail routing code developed and maintained by the U.S. Postal Service. To find a zip code for an address, go to: Zip Code Lookup.
ZONE OF EMPLOYMENT:
that physical area within which injuries to an employee are compensable by workers' compensation laws; it denotes the place of employment and surrounding areas, including the means of ingress and egress.


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