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Brockport / KSSPE / Graduate Tracks / Synthesis / Abstracts / August 2005

Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education (KSSPE)

Synthesis Abstracts- August 2005


Coaches of Female Athletes: Athletes' and Administrators' Preferences Based on Coaches' Gender - Jonathan P. Beardsley (August 2005)

Do differences between the sexes in the coaching profession make men or women better coaches for female athletes? This study looks at female athletes' and administrators' perceptions and preferences of male coaches and the impact these perceptions have on hiring. Finally, it explored gender-related coaching characteristics. Many female athletes preferred male coaches or did not have a preference. The athletes' perceived male coaches as more knowledgeable and capable in their field than their female counterparts. Women tended to have higher rates of coaching-burnout, but also offered more social support. However, within this synthesis of research, it did not show that one sex was better than the other to coach female high school athletes.


College level faculty/professors attitudes/perceptions toward on-line learning/distance education - Mary Catherine Duncan (August 2005)

The purpose of this synthesis project was to examine college level faculty attitudes and perceptions of distance education. Ten peer reviewed research articles were included for analysis. The attitudes and perceptions were coded by (a) author, title, findings, (b) motivators for participating and non-participating faculty, (c) motivators for participating faculty only, (d) motivators for non-participating faculty, (e) inhibitors for participating and non-participating faculty, (f) inhibitors for participating faculty only, and (g) inhibitors for non-participating faculty. Results indicate that participating faculty are intrinsically motivated, while non-participating faculty are extrinsically motivated. Future research is necessary to determine how to retain participating faculty and how to attract non-participating faculty when intrinsic motivators are not a factor.


Examination of coeducational physical education classes versus same sex physical education classes - Anthony Carusone (August 2005)

This study investigated students in coeducational and same sex physical education classes. The intent was to examine the existing literature pertaining to the students in coeducational physical education classes and same sex physical education classes respectively.

With the push for Title IX, which deals with gender equity and physical education, several schools are implementing coeducational physical education classes. It is necessary to find out if coeducational physical education classes or same sex physical education classes are the way to go. This topic warranted examining selected studies to see whether one type of class setting is more supported than the other in the literature.

The data showed no preference difference for class setting in physical education. Same sex physical education seems to be slightly more preferable, however, with only a nine percent difference (same sex 50% versus coeducational 41%), literature does not support one class setting over the other.

Results showed middle school girls and boys preferred same sex physical education class. With very few studies involving high school students no conclusion can be drawn on whether they preferred one type of class setting over the other.

Based on the results of this synthesis it cannot be determined if the several schools that are implementing coeducational physical education are taking a positive step forward for physical education programs because the literature does not greatly support one type of class setting over the other.


Student Satisfaction with On-Line Learning: A Review of the Literature - Shawn R. Fromwiller (August 2005)

The purpose of this synthesis project was to examine students' satisfaction with online learning in a higher education setting. The main research questions included;

  • What are the most prevalent reasons for student satisfaction in online courses?
  • What is the overall satisfaction rate of online students?
  • What is the overall satisfaction rate of online students by gender?

A total of 17 articles were included for the research analysis. These articles were coded by (a) author, title, and publication, (b) number of subjects, (c) method of data collection, (d) reasons for satisfaction, (e) overall satisfaction, and (f) overall satisfaction by gender. Results indicate that there are several reasons as to why students are satisfied, but the most common responses include; (1) interaction, (2) instructor, (3) flexibility, and (4) help/support desk. Results also indicate that students overall are satisfied with their online learning experience, and that females satisfaction rates are higher than males. Future research is necessary to determine other variables related to student satisfaction.


Disordered Eating Behaviors among Female Ballet Dancers: A review of the research literature- Toni M. Lipari (August 2005)

The purpose of this synthesis project was to determine if female ballet dancers in particular, are at-risk for developing disordered eating behaviors and what factors are involved with this type of behavior. Although many studies have discussed the topic of eating disorders, they do not focus on one group of athletes in particular. Eleven peer-reviewed journal articles were used in the study. Many of the studies reviewed found that female ballet dancers had more symptoms and higher Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) scores than non-dancers. Numerous studies found that factors such as Drive for Thinness, Perfectionism, Body Dissatisfaction and Bulimia were closely related to the development of disordered eating and female ballet dancers.


Common Factors Associated With Athlete Burnout: A Review of the Literature - Aaron L. Pusateri (August 2005)

The purpose of this study was to synthesize the literature pertaining to common factors associated with athlete burnout; types of factors associated with athlete burnout, and determine if differences exist in team and individual sports in terms of athlete burnout. Eleven research studies were selected for this synthesis, along with 6 articles used for supplemental information on the topic. Tables and graphs were used to organize the data for analysis and to answer the three essential questions of the synthesis: (1) What are the most common factors leading to athlete burnout?, (2) What types of factors most commonly lead to athlete burnout, (3) Do differences exist in factors leading to athlete burnout in team sports and individual sports? The data was extracted from the selected studies, coded, and put into frequency tables that allowed for the tallying of factors. The first two tables were used to code the data, while the third table was used to determine the most common factors associated with burnout based on frequency of occurrence. Four categories were used in determining the types of factors that were most frequently associated with athlete burnout; psychological concerns, physical concerns, logistical concerns, and social/interpersonal concerns.

The results of the study indicated that parent pressure was the most common factor leading to athlete burnout among 50 total factors. Perfectionism, physical and emotional exhaustion also occurred frequently in the selected studies. It was also concluded that psychological concerns were the most common with 50% of the factors in this category. Finally it was found that 60% of the factors were the same for team and individual sports, while 88% were related to individual sports, 16% more than team sports.


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