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Brockport / KSSPE / Graduate Tracks / Synthesis / Abstracts / August 2006

Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education (KSSPE)

Synthesis Abstracts- August 2006


A Review of Research Literature Related to the Development of the Abdominal Muscles Through the Use of Device and Non-device Abdominal Exercises. Hite, Penny- (August 2006)

This synthesis (1) reviewed the existing literature on the use of the rectus abdominus musculature while performing various abdominal exercises and (2) identified certain exercises and devices that are superior in the use of the rectus abdominus muscle based on the EMG scores attained during performance. The use of exercises and devices to train the abdominal musculature is well documented. Entrepreneurs have become rich selling the concept of strong and sculpted abdominals. Persons attempting to lose weight and look attractive spend billions of dollars (Avedisian, 2005). Additionally, rehabilitation and fitness professionals have documented the need for strong abdominals in order to reduce low back pain. As a result, the market is saturated with various devices and exercises for the development of the abdominal musculature. The viability of these infomercial devices and exercises has not always been studied and as a result has cost the uninformed consumer a great deal in terms of money and time in their pursuit of a quality midsection. Ten research articles were synthesized to determine which exercise/device elicited the greatest use of the rectus abdominus musculature, the largest muscle of the midsection. The results of this synthesis indicated that both device and non-device exercises will enhance the musculature of the midsection, particularly the rectus abdominus. The crunch exercise was found to be the exercise that produced the greatest raw data score on both the URA and the LRA of those exercises/devices studied (754.9 and 399.4= 1154.3 collectively). When considering percent of MVIC the curl-up was ranked the highest with a percent of MVIC for the URA being 68.6% and the LRA 63.1% for an overall percentage of 65.9%. Read Full Text


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Programs' Impact on Knee Injury Rates in the Athletic Female: A Synthesis of the Research Literature. Rhoads, Jarett- (August, 2006)

This synthesis of the research literature examined the effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs' impact on knee injury rates in the athletic female. Female athletes have a 2 to 8 times higher incidence of ACL injury than do males participating in the same landing and pivoting sports. This greater risk of injury, along with an increase in participation, has led to a significant rise in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. There is, however, evidence that part of the source of this serious problem is neuromuscular in nature, which has led to the development of neuromuscular interventions designed to prevent ACL injury. A systematic review of the published literature yielded eight interventions targeted toward anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention in female athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reported effectiveness of these published programs claiming to reduce the incidence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes, and synthesize the results, using Chi-Square statistical testing, to reveal which one(s) are the most successful for implementation by female athletic coaches. The results of this synthesis project revealed that the Mandelbaum, Et al. (2005) intervention, clearly, appeared to be the most successful published ACL injury prevention program. Read Full Text


Peer Tutors' Impact on Gender in School Aged Children. Kuhmann, Timothy- (August, 2006)

The purpose of this study was to determine if peer tutoring has a positive effect on both male and female students with disabilities in a regular physical education class setting. Does one gender benefit more than the other from a peer tutor? One research based article and nine peer reviewed articles were studied. Descriptive statistics and effect size were used to analyze the data. Through the analysis of current literature, categories of male tutors, female tutors, male tutees, female tutees, school level (elementary, middle school, and high school), impact on the tutee (positive or negative), and peer tutoring method were used to organize the literature for analysis. The results of this study found that gender did not have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the peer tutor. Gender pairings resulted a low effect size through an analysis of data. The current research does support the effectiveness of peer tutors in a regular physical education setting. All peer tutors (male or female) had a positive impact on their tutee. This was true for all school levels (elementary, middle school, and high school), but there was no evidence found for the effectiveness of the use of peer tutors at different school levels. Read Full Text


Examination of students' preferences to participate in same sex physical education class versus a coeducational physical education class setting. Jehlen, Joseph- (August, 2006)

This study investigated the preferences of students to participate in a same sex physical education setting versus a coeducational physical education setting. Title IX of the Educational Amendment Act of 1972 was passed in an attempt to equalize the treatment between genders in the physical education environment. With more schools going to a coeducational physical education setting this subject warranted further exploration to see if one setting is more preferable than the other in the literature available. The results in this synthesis showed that there was no preference for class settings in physical education. Same sex physical education seems to be slightly more preferable, however, with only a nine percent difference (same sex 50% versus coeducational 41%). As this percentage is so minimal it cannot be determined if one setting is more preferable to the other. When separated between middle school and high school, results showed middle school girls and boys preferred same sex physical education class. Unfortunately there were very few studies involving high school students therefore no foregone conclusion can be drawn on whether they prefer one type of class setting over the other. The results of this synthesis showed that students shared different reasons for preferring each physical education class setting. The main reason that students preferred coeducational physical education was because of the social development aspects that it provided for them. However, there were many reasons that students preferred same sex physical education classes such as comfort levels, competition, confidence, and skill development. Read Full Text


Difference in Performance between Maximal Lactate Steady State Aerobic Training and Traditional Long Slow Distance Training Regime: A Review of the Literature. Odle, Christopher- (August, 2006)

The purpose of this study was to synthesize research literature regarding Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS) training regime and Long Slow Distance (LSD) training regime and to determine which program leads to premier performance in endurance athletes. Though this study, 15 research embedded articles and 6 peer reviewed articles were examined. The data analysis included calculations of effect size and independent t-tests. The two regimes were tested on 3 main criteria and five categories were examined for additional analysis. The 15 research articles reported their findings into three main physiological adaptations, Heart Rate (HR), Maximal Oxygen intake (VO2max), and Blood Lactate (BL). Effect sizes and Independent t-test were calculated I these three areas. Five other categories were also examined for further analysis, age, gender, mode, duration, and intensity. It was found in this study that when comparing MLSS regime to LSD in regards to heart rate, there was no significant difference. When comparing MLSS to LSD regimes in respect to Maximal Oxygen consumption, there was no significant difference. However, when comparing MLSS to LSD regimes in reference to blood lactate there was a significant difference, p < .01. The MLSS regime trains the Lactate Threshold where the LSD regime does not, leading to higher performance training. Age and engaged muscle mass were found to have inverse relationships with MLSS. Approximately 50% of the studies recorded intensities of 75 - 90% of VO2Max for MLSS. It was also determined that duration should be 30 minutes to 1 hour unless the subjects are adolescent, 20 minutes or less. Unfortunately, there was not enough information on Gender differences. Read Full Text


Fitness levels and academic performance: A review of the research literature. Waver III, Chester - (August, 2006)

This study investigated the relationship between fitness levels and academic performance of students. The main purpose of this synthesis was to find out if a relationship exists between fitness levels and academic performance and whether gender, age, or environmental setting are factors in the relationship. From examination of the literature there appeared to be adequate research and information pertaining to fitness and academic performance. However, only limited studies existed that examined the relationship between fitness levels and academic performance while examining the variables of gender, age and environmental setting. Therefore, it was important to use those studies to determine the association between fitness levels and academic performance while examining the variables of gender, age and environmental settings, which will potentially increase academic performance. Based on frequency of occurrence this synthesis answers the following questions: What association is found between fitness levels and academic performance? What association is found between fitness levels and academic performance according to gender? What association is found between fitness levels and academic performance according to setting? The results of this synthesis found that increased fitness levels have a positive association with academic standing or no association at all. A negative association was not found for any variable. Furthermore, gender does play a role in the relationship between academic performance and fitness with females gaining the greatest benefit. Results also showed that students benefit more from an urban setting when it comes to an increased fitness level increasing their academic performance.