Motivational Factors Relevant to Secondary Physical Education Students: A Synthesis of the Research Literature - Amy Koudelka (December 2005)
A lack of motivation to engage in physical activity among secondary students is a serious concern among physical educators. Because reduced participation in physical activities is related to declining fitness levels, increasing rates of obesity and other health related concerns, there is an increase in the study of motivational factors related to physical education. This synthesis of twenty selected research studies examined variables that have been found effective at motivating secondary physical education students and increasing their attention to engage in physical activity. Ability beliefs, autonomy, and task/mastery orientation climate were the variables most frequently cited as having a positive effect on the motivation of secondary physical education students. This information is of significance to physical educators in their efforts to improve student participation and performance.
Stress and Burnout Affects on Classroom Teachers & Physical Education Teachers: A Synthesis of the Research Literature- Brendan Stiner (December 2005)
This synthesis of the research literature examined the main stress factors affecting classroom teachers and physical education teachers. Nineteen research based studies that were peer reviewed articles were used for this synthesis. Charts and tables were developed to describe and analyze the data from the research articles. This analysis of data was organized into three categories: most common stress factors for classroom teachers, most prevalent stress factors for physical education teachers, and the commonality between stress factors for classroom teachers and physical education teachers. Frequency counts and central tendency were used to measure the most frequent stress factors for classroom teachers, physical educators, and common stressors between the two. Working conditions and physical & emotional exhaustion were found to be the top stressors in classroom teachers. Lack of respect from administration, colleagues, and parents, and lack of support was both equal in being the highest most prevalent stress factors that physical educators face. It was also found that lack of support was the most prevalent stress factor that both classroom and physical education teachers encounter.
A Review of Physical Activity Levels in Relation to Age: Children ages 3-15 years - Steve K. Zimmer (December 2005)
This synthesis (1) reviews the existing literature on physical activity levels in children from ages 3 to 15, and (2) identifies factors that have a positive or negative effect on physical activity as a function of age. Current trends in the literature reveal decreasing physical activity levels in children, as they get older. Increased incidence of health risks and obesity levels resulting from the lack of physical activity, give importance to this topic. METHOD: Twelve studies were examined to determine the effect of age on the physical activity levels in children from 3 to 15 years of age. Information was obtained or calculated from each of the twelve articles and were coded according to the following categories; (1) author(s), (2) number of subjects (3) age (4) cultural setting (5) effect size calculations between 4 age groups (3-5yrs., 6-8yrs., 9-12yrs., & 13-15yrs. of age), and (6) whether significant differences in physical activity level between age groups were found. RESULTS: The results were used to pinpoint the age groups with significant differences in physical activity levels between them, and identify factors that had a positive or negative effect on these differences. DISCUSSION: The findings of this synthesis reveal that significant declines in physical activity levels occur primarily between the 9-12 and 13-15 year old age groups, and may not be true for the 6-8 and 9-12 year old age groups. Several factors positively or negatively affecting physical activity levels in children 3-15 years old were identified in this synthesis. Read Full Text