Parental Influence on Child Physical Activity: A Synthesis of the Research Literature- Richard Wood (May 2005)
This synthesis of the research literature examined parental influence on children's participation in physical activity. Twelve research based articles and four peer reviewed journal articles were used in this synthesis. Charts, figures, and tables were developed to assist in analyzing the data from the research articles. This analysis of data was organized into two types of parental influence: encouragement and role modeling. The research articles were further analyzed by looking at the data in relation to the subjects in the study, age of the children, instruments used in the study, number of parents involved in the study, and gender of parents and children. Effect size was calculated to determine the strength of influence parental encouragement and role modeling had on children's participation in physical activity. It provided meaningfulness of the outcome of the research between the two groups. The populations from both studies were used to represent the two groups and results showed a moderate effect. The age of the child played an important role in determining which parental influence was more effective, as encouragement had a strong influence at all ages and role modeling showed a strong influence from the elementary school age and younger.
Teacher expectations in urban schools: A review of the research literature- By Jamie E. Schneider (May 2005)
This study investigated teacher expectations in urban schools. The intent was to understand why teachers have high or low expectations for their students in urban schools. The main purpose was to find out whether students in urban schools received different quality education because of where they live, race, or culture or vice versa. From the examination of the literature, there appeared to be adequate information and research on teacher expectations and student achievement. I feel that there are still unanswered questions about teacher expectations in different school settings. Having taught in the Rochester City School District and now in a suburban district I have witnessed teachers provide students with different levels of expectations. The rationale for this review of literature is that teacher expectations and student achievement have been studied in great detail, with the research highly supporting that teacher expectations do effect student achievement to a high degree. I have taken it one step further looking specifically at urban schools where there is a question of whether teachers have high or low expectations for all of their students. The data analyzed was qualitative and quantitative research data on this topic. For data analysis I used a bar graph that shows the frequency distribution of the variables that are effecting either high or low teacher expectations in urban schools. Some variables that arose from my research that display teacher behaviors toward students discerning high or low expectations range from getting more positive teacher feedback, more teacher attention, to being called on less and given less teacher support. Future research should target how to end these low expectations that negatively influence a student's self-concept.
Attitudes and Perception of Distance Education for Higher Education Students- By Michael W. Heitzenrater (May 2005)
The purpose of this synthesis project was to examine students attitudes and perceptions of distance education in a higher education setting. Eleven articles were included for analysis. The overall perception of distance education was positive although there are areas for improvement. The attitudes and perceptions were coded based on (a) author, title, and publication. (b) method of evaluation. (c) positive attitudes. (d) negative attitudes. (e) overall perception of distance education. Results indicate students have positive attitudes and perceptions toward distance education. Future research is necessary to determine how interaction can be increased in a distance education class.
Early Specialization and Diversification in Sports: A Review of the Research Literature - By Dara Read (May 2005)
The purpose of this study was to synthesize the literature pertaining to early sports specialization and early sports diversification and reveal the impact each school or perspective has on the emerging athletes. A total of 19 research based articles and 14 peer reviewed journals were studied. The consent comparison method, along with effect size was used to analyze the data. Threw the analysis 7 distinct categories emerged; positive support for specialization, positive support for diversification, physical aspects of sport, psychological aspects of sport, team sports, individual sports, and gender. These categories were used to breakdown the research and make it easier to understand. The results of this study found that specialization and diversification in youth sports are sport dependent. Team sport athletes such as baseball players are more likely to have a diversified background then individual sport athletes such as gymnasts. This study also found that participation in sports is very socially dependent. If an athlete enjoys the social environment of the team they are on they are more likely to stay and perform well. The findings on the physical aspect of sport show that the intensity of training does not negatively effect long-term growth. However, high intensity sports participation can cause female athletes to have potential maturation delays.
Motivation for Participation in Physical Activity: A Review of the Research Literature- By Patrick J. McLarney (May 2005)
This synthesis paper attempted to answer two questions: what motivates individuals to be physically active? And are there gender differences in the motivation to be physically active? Seventeen peer-reviewed journal articles were used in the investigation. Ability beliefs, goal orientation, relevance, choice, and perceived confidence were identified in multiple studies as variables affecting the motivation to be physically active. It appears that males are more motivated by ability beliefs and goal orientations while women are more motivated when allowed to choose form a variety of activities.
An Exploration of Parental Behavior in Youth Sports: A Synthesis of the Research Literature - By Elizabeth, Mundell (May 2005)
The purpose of this study was to analyze existing sources of primary data pertaining to the behaviors of parents in the sports experiences of children. Specifically, this project attempted to determine the types of parents' behaviors that impact their children's sports experiences in a positive or negative manner. Through the synthesis of current research this project sought to answer two questions; first, what are the parental behaviors that determine if the sport experience is positive or negative for the child, and how to they do so? And secondly, can the child's perception and the intention of the parent's behavior differ, and how does this perception effect the sport experience? Twenty-three research based articles were examined in an effort to reach a solid answer to these questions, which yielded four main conclusions. The first, and perhaps most important is that it is the perception of a behavior, not the intent that is most influential. The second, when perceived as acting supportively, a parent can benefit their child and make the sport experience more positive. Thirdly, parents should guard against making comments during competitions, or being perceived as pressuring as this can be a negative product of sport for children. And the fourth and also very important finding, a parent should be very conscientious of what they believe about the sport ability of their child, and how the child perceives they do, as it is a direct influence on whether sport is more positive or negative for the child.
Adolescents' Perceptions of Coeducational and Same-sex Physical Education- By Mary L. Cody (May 2005)
The purpose of this synthesis is to review the literature pertaining to adolescents and their perception of coed physical education classes and same sex physical education classes. The studies indicated that boys and girls have different views of physical education and their reasons for participating. The boys as a whole had positive responses to both co-ed and same-sex classes. They enjoy the competitiveness and the camaraderie of the same-sex classes. They also related that they enjoyed the social interaction involved in co-ed classes. The girls in the studies displayed a clear dislike for co-ed physical education, as compared to same-sex classes. The presence of boys in the co-ed classes provided the girls with many anxieties. Many girls responded that they were not comfortable competing with the boys in class. The results of the literature search provided me with 10 peered reviewed articles. Many of the articles found used both quantitative measures and a qualitative measure. A variety of questionnaires and interviews were given to 4,167 females and 3874 males. If the students' perceptions correlate with their achievement, it will be imperative to do a better job of training teachers in the teaching of co-ed physical education classes. There needs to be subtle changes to help integrate all students into co-ed classes. How gender is viewed by society will be ever changing, therefore teachers need to be aware of this evolution and work with it.