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Brockport / KSSPE / Graduate Tracks / Synthesis / Abstracts / May 2006

Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education (KSSPE)

Synthesis Abstracts- May 2006


Conditions under which Self-Talk Enhances Athletic Performance. Rider, Michele- (May 2006)

The purpose of this synthesis was to determine the conditions under which positive self-talk enhances athletic performance. Seventeen articles formed the critical mass of research for this project. These articles were coded according to specific conditions of the research, and frequency data analysis was used to identify factors influencing the effectiveness of positive self-talk. Frequency data was then used to create a profile of conditions under which self-talk enhanced athletic performance. For self-talk to have the greatest positive influence on athletic performance, coaches should teach athletes how to use self-talk properly, help athletes develop self-talk plans, and help them integrate these plans into practice and competition routines. Future research in a variety of sports with a larger number of participants is necessary to determine effectiveness of positive self-talk for enhancing athletic performance.


Effects of Maternal Alcohol Intake on Motor Development and Motor Performance in Children Birth to Five Years. Myers, Michele- (May 2006)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of maternal alcohol intake on motor development and motor performance in children birth to five years. Eleven articles were analyzed for this synthesis project. Research articles were coded according to the positive and negative effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on psychomotor development outcomes, fine and gross motor skill effects, findings according to maternal alcohol intake, and factors relevant to the relationship. Frequency data analysis indicated that there is a significant negative effect of maternal alcohol consumption on motor development and motor performance. The findings indicate that the heavier the drinker, the more of an effect on psychomotor development. With increased illegal drug use and abuse in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, future research should focus on expanding our knowledge of how these drugs affect fetal motor development and psychomotor performance


Head Injuries in Women's Lacrosse: A Review of Literature. Hassett, Elizabeth- (May 2006)

The purpose of this synthesis project was to determine whether the introduction of additional protective equipment would be beneficial to the game of women's lacrosse. Ten articles were included for analysis. Results were analyzed based on the following factors (a) the level of play- scholastic vs. collegiate, (b) injuries in women's lacrosse compared to other sports, (c) how the injury occurred (ball, stick, player), and (d) injury in women's vs. men's game. It was concluded that additional protective equipment would not be beneficial to women's lacrosse. The rate of injury is higher in men's lacrosse and the addition of protective equipment may not lower the injuries incurred in women's lacrosse. Additionally, other sports have a higher rate of head injuries than women's lacrosse, and the addition of protective equipment would change the nature of the game of women's lacrosse as we know it today.


The Effect of Static Stretching on Maximal Strength Performance. Monks, Rene- (May 2006)

The purpose of this synthesis project was to (a) determine the degree to which static stretching inhibits maximal strength performance, and (b) determine which mechanical and neurological factors related to the act of acute stretching are responsible for the reduction in performance. Fifteen articles were included for analysis. Effect size was calculated to determine the degree that stretching inhibits maximum force output. When effect size could not be calculated due to lack of data, significant researcher findings were used to distinguish the degree of force inhibition. A frequency distribution chart was constructed to identify the mechanical and neurological factors associated with the reduction in maximal strength performance. Acute static stretching prior to performance was found to significantly decrease force output. The mechanical factors identified were decreased muscular stiffness, viscoelasticity, and duration of stretch. Neurological factors included muscle inactivation, autogenic inhibition, and motoneuron inexcitability. Future research is necessary to identify relationships that may exist between the factors associated with reduction in force output


The Effectiveness of Training Methods that Decrease the Risk of Sport-Related Injuries in Interscholastic Athletics.Osburn, Anthony- (May 2006)

The purpose of the study was to identify which injury reducing training methods should be included in an interscholastic athletic program. A total of ten peer-reviewed articles were analyzed in this synthesis project. Each article was coded according to gender, sports, and level of competition. The ten studies were ranked according to injury reduction percentages. Training methods that had a 60% or higher reduction rate for the risk of injury were added into a frequency distribution chart. Frequency data analysis and logical reasoning were used to determine the injury reducing methods that should be used in interscholastic training programs. This analysis identified four training methods that should be included in an interscholastic athletic program: strength training, plyometrics, flexibility exercises, and balance board training. In the future, survey research designed to determine the current level of knowledge that interscholastic coaches and athletic directors have in training and conditioning methods could assist in determining the needs of high school athletic programs. Studies identifying the types of physical training programs that currently exist at the interscholastic level in the United States would shed light on how our athletes are currently being trained.


The Psychological Benefits of Traditional Martial Arts Training. Clarcq, Jason- (May 2006)

The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological benefits of traditional martial arts training. A total of seventeen articles met the criteria that formed the critical mass of research synthesized in this project. Articles were coded and frequency data analysis was used to determine the psychological benefits of traditional martial arts. Benefits included decreased aggression, increased self-esteem, increased self-confidence, lower anxiety levels, increased coping ability, reduced anger/lower hostility and decreased depression. Future research is needed concerning long-term observation of students in traditional and recreational activities. Research also needs to include larger sample sizes so that psychological benefits of traditional martial arts can be studied more effectively (Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989).


The differences between expert teachers and experienced teachers: a review of the research literature. Meghan A. Donnelly- (May 2006)

This synthesis examined the differences between expert teachers and experienced teachers by determining the frequency of occurrence of the characteristics relevant to expert and experienced teachers. Through research the following questions were explored:

  • What are the characteristics of expert teachers?
  • What are the characteristics of experienced teachers?
  • What characteristics occur more often in male or female teachers with regards to expertise?

Using the frequency of occurrence we the characteristics of expert teachers and the characteristics of experienced teachers were defined while attempting to answer the questions stated above. Seventeen peer-reviewed research based journal articles were collected and coded based on (a) author, title and date of publication, (b) purpose of the study, (c) subjects, (d) instruments used to collect information, (e) procedures, and (f) findings. The articles were split into two categories, expert teachers and experienced teachers. From here two tables were designed to list the frequency of occurrences based on the characteristics of expert teachers and the characteristics of experienced teachers. By canceling out the characteristics that over lap, a clear definition of teacher expertise was created. Future research is necessary to fully understand the role of gender in becoming and expert teachers.