This second kind of knowledge deals with ways of knowing, formulating, and representing a subject that makes it available to others. That is, effective teachers require not only a deep knowledge of the content to be taught, but also knowledge of the teaching strategies that will enable them to teach that content. This is knowledge for teaching--organizing content to make it interesting and accessible to all students. Shulman describes "pedagogical content knowledge" as follows:
Within the category of pedagogical knowledge, I include, for the most regularly taught topics in one's subject area, the most useful forms of representation of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrationsâ€”in a word, the ways of representing and formulating the subject that makes it comprehensible to others. Since there are no single most powerful forms of representation, the teacher must have at hand a veritable armamentarium of alternative forms of representation, some of which derive from research, whereas others originate in the wisdom of practice (Shulman, 1986 p.9).
Candidates must also have opportunities to construct knowledge for diverse populations of learners and be able to effectively use technology as a tool to enhance their teaching. For example, with the support of faculty and school-based personnel, candidates must engage in collaboratively designing, implementing, and critiquing learning experiences and environments for learners with special needs.