Undergraduate Studies Catalog (1999-2001)
Fax (716) 395-2416
Chairperson: Judy A. Massare; Associate Professors: Robert M. Cassie, Jose A. Maliekal, Massare; Assistant Professors: Whitney J. Autin, Gary M. Lackmann, Mark R. Noll, James A. Zollweg.
The earth sciences encompass all aspects of earth environments and earth resources. Physical, chemical, biological, and mathematical principles are applied to understand the materials of each component of the earth system, how individual components behave, what kinds of natural changes are taking place within and between these components, what causes these changes, and how human activities might influence the future behavior of the earth system.
The Department of the Earth Sciences offers four majors: geology, meteorology, water resources, and earth science. Minors are offered in geology, meteorology, and the interdisciplinary fields of earth science and communications meteorology.
Major in Geology
Geology majors must earn a minimum of 42 credits in required core courses and complete two semesters each of physics with lab and chemistry. This major offers sound training in the study of the earth and its resources and equips the student for graduate studies and a professional career in geochemistry, geophysics, mining, petroleum exploration, hydrogeology, ground water and environmental geology, or marine geology. It also provides a general understanding of geology for those who seek employment at the bachelor's level, e.g. as a laboratory or environmental technician, museum curator, scientific illustrator, or secondary school teacher.
Required Core: Credits
Designated Electives: Credits
Required Corequisite Courses: Credits
Please note: ESC and GEL courses other than the designated electives may NOT be taken as credit toward the geology major without written departmental approval. To make normal progress toward the degree, GEL 101 Our Earth, GEL 302 Historical Geology, and one year of college chemistry should be completed before entering the junior year. ESC 350 and ESC 391 should be taken by the end of the sophomore year. ESC 493 should be taken in the senior year.
A career as a professional geologist requires knowledge of all the natural sciences. Students are encouraged to complete one year of study in each of the related disciplines of chemistry, mathematics, physics, and biology, as well as additional coursework in geology. Students who intend to pursue graduate studies should minor in chemistry, physics, mathematics, or biology, depending on their specific field of interest within geology. Recommended supporting courses include:
GEL 314 Optical Mineralogy
Minor in Geology
Eighteen credits are required and must include: GEL 101 Our Earth (or GEL 100 and GEL 102), and GEL 302 Historical Geology, plus other courses as advised.
Major in Meteorology
Meteorology majors must earn a minimum of 41 credits in required core courses, complete one year of college-level physics with lab, two semesters of calculus, differential equations, and chemistry. Additional supporting work in the sciences and mathematics is strongly recommended.
This major prepares students for careers in weather forecasting, atmospheric research, environ mental consulting and air quality management. The strong physical science orientation of the program allows students to compete in related fields, such as environmental and computer science, hydrology, and alternative energy utilization. The major meets the federal guidelines for meteorologists, enabling graduates to begin careers in federal, state, and private employment.
Required Core Courses: Credits
Required Corequisite Courses Credits
ESC 350 and ESC 391 should be taken by the end of the sophomore year.
ESC 493 should be taken in the senior year.
Additional mathematics, computer science, or science courses are recommended, depending on individual goals. In some cases, these may be applied toward the major with written departmental approval. Recommended supporting courses, outside of meteorology, include:
CHM 206 College Chemistry II
Minor in Meteorology
Eighteen credits are required, to be selected from the ESC courses required for the meteorology major; includes ESC 211 (or its equivalent) and 311.
Minor in Communications Meteorology
The interdisciplinary communications meteorology minor is described elsewhere in this catalog.
Major in Water Resources
Water resources majors must earn a minimum of 43 credits in required core courses. Additional requirements are two semesters each of calculus, college chemistry with lab, and college physics with lab.
This major prepares students for careers in hydrology, resource management, and pollution control; the course of study includes most courses recommended for federal employment as a hydrologist. The major is offered to meet the growing demand for hydrologists and other water resources professionals by federal, state, and local government agencies; private sector environ mental and consulting firms; and industrial and educational institutions.
Required Core Courses: Credits
Designated Electives: Credits
Required Corequisite Courses
ESC 350 and ESC 391 should be taken by the end of the sophomore year.
ESC 493 should be taken in the senior year.
The study of hydrology and water resources depends strongly on skills and knowledge from physics, chemistry, geology, meteorology, mathematics, and computer science. A professional career in water resources is supported by additional course work in these disciplines. Recommended supporting courses outside of water resources include:
BIO 422 Pollution Biology
Major in Earth Science
Earth Science majors must earn a minimum of 32 credits in the earth sciences and an additional eight credits in related lab sciences. The required core courses are supplemented with electives from each of the disciplines in earth sciences. This interdisciplinary major draws upon the study of geology (the solid earth and its resources), meteorology (the atmosphere and its movement), and water resources (water and its cycling through the environment) to equip graduates for employment in resource management, pollution control, environmental consulting, govern mental planning agencies, and elementary or secondary school teaching. They may also pursue graduate study in atmospheric science, geology, oceanography, environmental science, and resource management.
Required Core (17 Credits): Credits
Geology Elective (choose one of the following)* (3-4 Credits):
Meteorology Elective (choose one of the following)* (3-4 credits):
Water Resources Elective (choose one of the following)* (3-4 Credits)
General Electives (3-6 Credits)
Science Corequisites (8 Credits)
Please note: ESC 350 and ESC 391 should be taken by the end of the sophomore year. ESC 493 should be taken in the senior year.
*An upper division course from the major requirements corresponding to that elective area may be substituted with written permission, i.e. another course required for the geology major may be used in place of GEL 302, 415, 463, or 312.
Minor in Earth Science
Eighteen credits are required, and must include ESC 200, 211, and GEL 101.
Policy on Majors and Minors in the Earth Sciences
Majors within the Earth Sciences Department are strongly encouraged to have second majors or major/minor combinations with chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics or computer sciences rather than within the department. Courses applied towards fulfilling the major CANNOT also be applied to a minor within the department. Where the same courses are required for both the major and minor, the minor work must be 18 credits beyond those commonly required credits.
Earth Science Courses
ESC 101 Introduction to Environmental Science of the Great Lakes Region (A). The Great Lakes region is unique in terms of its physical setting, complex ecosystem, cultural significance, and cultural issues. This course will examine the interdisciplinary science behind the environmental issues through class sessions examining fundamental scientific principles and weekly field trips in the Rochester area. Field work and class sessions will emphasize active participation, problem solving, and discussion. NOT ACCEPTABLE CREDIT TOWARD ANY MAJOR OR MINOR OFFERED THROUGH THE EARTH SCIENCES DEPARTMENT. 3 Cr. Summer only for selected students.ESC 102 Elements of Geography (A,N). Locating, describing, and explaining physical processes and features of the earth; relating them to cultural, economic, and political activities of people. Includes location and characterization of places; human-environment interactions; and unifying features of regions. Goal: to understand how earth processes and features affect and are affected by human activities. NOT ACCEPTABLE CREDIT TOWARD ANY MAJOR OR MINOR OFFERED THROUGH THE EARTH SCIENCES DEPARTMENT. 4 Cr. Fall, Spring.
ESC 200 Introduction to Oceanography (A,N). Covers fundamental knowledge concerning the oceans, techniques and instruments utilized in the study of the oceans, environmental problems relating to oceans and their resources. Lecture only. 3 Cr. Fall.
ESC 202 Lab Experiences in Oceanography (A). Provides laboratory activities concerning physical, chemical, biological and geological aspects of oceanography. Also familiarizes students with techniques, equipment and specimens. One three-hour laboratory per week. May be taken with or following ESC 200. 1 Cr.
ESC 210 Weather (A,N). Studies the composition of the atmosphere, motions and forces, energy flow, clouds, precipitation, weather systems, violent weather and atmospheric electricity, and sound and light phenomena. Covers the bases of scientific inquiry in atmospheric investigations, emphasizing weather study as it demonstrates relationships between directly observed weather and weather systems as depicted on weather maps. Lecture only. (Students taking the course may not take ESC 211.) 3 Cr. Every Semester.
ESC 211 Weather (A,L). Studies the composition of the atmosphere, motions and forces, energy flow, clouds, precipitation, weather systems, violent weather and atmospheric electricity, and sound and light phenomena. Explores the bases and limitations of scientific inquiry in atmospheric investigations. Includes a laboratory component to construct and analyze weather maps and charts involving surface and upper-level atmospheric soundings. (Students taking this course may not take ESC 210 or 212 for credit.) 4 Cr. Every Semester.
ESC 212 Laboratory Experiences in General Meteorology (A). Prerequisite: ESC 210 or equivalent. Provides construction and analysis of weather maps and charts involving surface and upper-level atmospheric soundings, and application of meteorological theory to a study of the local atmospheric environment. Designed for students who have had ESC 210 or other lecture-only courses in weather. 1 Cr. Every Semester.
ESC 307 Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics (A). Prerequisites: MTH 201, PHS 201. Applies practical laws of fluid mechanics and hydraulics with an emphasis on pipe and open-channel flow. Topics include fluids and their properties; hydroforces; energy transformations; and flow measurements. Extensive use is made of professional quality computer software for hydraulics. 3 Cr. Alternate Spring.
ESC 311 Synoptic Meteorology (A). Prerequisite: ESC 211 or equivalent. Explains the synoptic approach to the problem of analysis, understanding and forecasting of the weather. Provides a basic understanding of atmospheric behavior, including knowledge of the mean state, the seasonal variations, and also the possible development of a particular weather situation at any given time. Supplements theory by practical experience in the analysis of weather charts for individual weather occurrences of a variety of types. 4 Cr. Fall.
ESC 312 Weather Forecasting (A). Prerequisite: ESC 311. Establishes a physical basis for weather forecasting through practical studies of cases involving radiation, condensation, pressure fields and precipitation formation. Develops objective methods for forecasting weather elements for the Great Lakes area, including severe-weather forecasting. 4 Cr. Spring.
ESC 315 History of Life (A). Prerequisites: GEL 101 or GEL 100 or BIO 111 or BIO 202. Explores the latest scientific evidence on the origin and early development of life based on the fossil record; and the main characteristics of the important plant and animal phyla and the different environments in which these major groups evolved. Emphasizes fundamental processes and concepts rather than terminology. 3 Cr. Alternate Fall.
ESC 319 Biological Oceanography (A). Prerequisite: ESC 200 or 201, or instructor's permission. Cross listed as BIO 319. Provides a brief review of the ocean's physical and chemical properties, followed by an in-depth study of the biology and life history of marine plants and animals. Concludes with discussions on the ecological roles of marine organisms in selected communities, including intertidal, coral reef and deep-sea habitats. 3 Cr. Alternate Fall.
ESC 350 Computational Methods in the Field Sciences (A). Prerequisites: One or more courses in the natural sciences or mathematics. Covers methods of handling, display and analysis for environmental data. Chooses from a variety of topics, such as: graphical display techniques, use of the computer for input and storage of data, statistical manipulation procedures, numerical analysis routines, and simulation and modeling of processes. Applies techniques for individual projects to each student's field. 3 Cr. Fall, Spring.
ESC 351 Laboratory Experience in Scientific Programming (A). Prerequisite or corequisite: ESC 350. Provides laboratory activities concerning writing scientific computer programs in FORTRAN or C. Covers basic features of FORTRAN or C programming languages including arithmetic computations, control structures, data files, array processing, and modular programming. Also familiarizes students with commonly used numerical methods in earth sciences. 1 Cr. Spring.
ESC 363 Environmental Issues of Western New York (A,I). This course is designed to foster an understanding of the basic scientific principles underlying environmental issues. We will examine several environmental issues of western New York through a series of case studies, exploring not only the fundamental science, but the complexities that arise when dealing with real environmental problems. Course includes 1-2 all-day field trips. 3 Cr.
ESC 364 Water Resource Issues (A,I). Studies water and hydrologic perspectives on problems of politics, economy and environment. Addresses issues involving the water resource by case studies ranging in scope from local to international. Requires participants to address and debate points of view in selected issues involving water resources. 3 Cr. Fall, Spring.
ESC 365 Women in Earth Sciences (A,I,W). Prerequisite: GEL 101, GEL 302, or instructor's permission. Studies women scientists and their work in the earth sciences. Examines the research contributions and of the role of women scientists in investigating earth's air, water and solid earth environments. Utilizes selected examples from fields in the geological sciences, atmospheric science and marine science. 3 Cr.
ESC 380 Remote Sensing and Interpretation (A). Studies remote sensing systems, both active and passive, with an emphasis on understanding the uses and interpretation of remotely sensed data. Emphasizes interpretation of photography, but also discusses infrared and microwave systems. Uses examples of imagery from aerial, satellite, and low altitude platforms to illustrate geologic and environ mental applications of remote sensing. 2 Cr.
ESC 391 Writing in the Earth Sciences (A). This course covers style and the conventions of scientific writing including letters, memoranda, proposals, data reports, abstracts, as well as longer technical papers. Emphasizes style requirements of major professional earth science societies and their journals. 1 Cr. Fall, Spring.
ESC 399 Independent Study in Earth Science (A). Prerequisite: ESC 200 or ESC 210. To be defined in consultation with the faculty member sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Achievement prior to registration. 1-3 Cr.
ESC 411 Hydrology Lab (A). Prerequisite or corequisite: ESC 412. Covers measurement of water in streams, stream basins and other parts of the water cycle firsthand in field and laboratory. Provides an understanding of hydrologic equipment, measurement techniques and analytical skills through investigation, including stream discharge, dams and reservoirs, evapotranspiration, snow survey, water quality, and sediment yield. 1 Cr. Fall.
ESC 412 Hydrology (A). Prerequisite: Introductory course in one or more areas of meteorology, physical geology, ecology, and physical geography. Covers the water cycle, including precipitation, runoff, streams and lakes, ground water, snow and other hydrologic topics. Also covers water storage and processes, analytical skills dealing with hydrologic events, and the utilization and conservation of water resources in terms of its distribution, quality and flow. 3 Cr. Fall.
ESC 413 Environmental Climatology (A). Prerequisite: ESC 211 or BIO 303. Covers the physical, chemical and biological factors affecting the climates of various earth environments, including meteorological processes affecting forests, soils and cities. Also covers climatic elements, instruments and observations, controls and typical mesoclimates, and physical processes and statistics for describing and analyzing impacts and environ mental problems. 3 Cr. Spring.
ESC 414 Climatology Lab (A). Prerequisite or corequisite: ESC 413. Covers the measurement of climatic elements, and field and lab description of mesoclimates and local climates. Also covers the equipment, techniques of measurement, and analysis of local climates in team and individual investigations, as well as the observational and analytical skills needed for an understanding of scientific limitations in the climatic study of environmental problems. 1 Cr. Spring.
ESC 415 Physical Meteorology (A). Prerequisites: ESC 311, MTH 201, and PHS 201. Covers atmospheric thermodynamics; physical processes of condensation and radiation; electrical, optical and acoustical phenomena in the atmosphere; uses of weather radar and meteorological satellites; and methods of probing the atmosphere. 3 Cr. Alternate Fall.
ESC 416 Thermodynamics and the Boundary Layer (A). Prerequisites: ESC 311, MTH 201, and PHS 201. Covers thermodynamic processes and stability in the lower atmospheric layers; transfers of mass, energy; and momentum in the boundary layer, atmospheric dispersion and modeling. 3 Cr. Alternate Fall.
ESC 417 Dynamic Meteorology (A). Prerequisites: ESC 312; PHS 201; and MTH 203 or 455, or PHS 301. Covers the development of the governing equations of motion, simplifications, introduction to concepts of divergence, circulation, vorticity; mid-latitude synoptic scale motions; and numerical methods and linear perturbation theory. 3 Cr. Spring.
ESC 418 Watershed Sciences (A). Prerequisite: ESC 412 or GEL 462. The art and science of evaluating water, air and land resources in a watershed to provide scientific information for management policy decisions. Utilizes maps and other physical resource information, sampling, data processing and analysis. 3 Cr. Spring.
ESC 420 Atmospheric Sensing Methods (A). Prerequisites: ESC 211 or equivalent, and MTH 122. Covers the theory of atmospheric sensing equipment: conventional environmental instrumentation, traditional radar propagation and interpretation, Doppler and profiler implementations, and satellite imagery interpretation. Emphasizes applications to National Weather Service networks and weather forecasting. 3 Cr. Alternate Spring.
ESC 421 Air Pollution Meteorology (A). For students, engineers and professional people training to measure air pollution levels or measure and evaluate meteorological parameters which affect the diffusion and concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere. Provides knowledge of the effects of meteorology in air pollution. Covers factors related to site selection, control programs, and interpretation of surveys. 3 Cr. Alternate Spring.
ESC 425 Wetland Systems (A). Prerequisites: TWO of the following-BIO 202, ESC 455, ESC 411/412, Plant Taxonomy, ESC 364. Covers the soils, plants, and hydrology that are characteristic of wetland systems; the history of attitudes towards and use of these areas; methods of classification of wetlands; legal and regulatory issues; management and preservation strategies; and design and use of constructed wetlands. 3 Cr.
ESC 427 Geotechniques of Hazardous Wastes Operations (A). Prerequisite: At least one field course in the earth sciences or equivalent. Principles and practices of field hydrogeology specializing in hazardous waste site investigations, monitoring and remediation including (1) OSHA 40-hr certified training; (2) emergency spill response; and (3) personal protection equipment; (4) groundwater sampling design, equipment and procedures; (5) quality control and quality assurance programs; (6) remediation techniques and equipment. 3 Cr.
ESC 428 Environmental Remediation Techniques (A). Prerequisite: GEL 462 or permission of instructor. Explores the state of the art in soil and groundwater cleanup techniques. Investigates the hydrogeological factors that influence the application of biological, chemical, and physical methods of remediation. Site investigation techniques, as related to technology selection and design, and containment options will also be discussed. Special attention will be paid to innovative techniques under development. 3 Cr. Summer.
ESC 430 Geo-Information Systems (A). Prerequisite: PC-computer literacy; GEL 101 or ESC 211. Introduces students to the use of computer-geographic information systems (GIS). Examines the geographic and information data-processing methods associated with earth systems sciences studies. Includes topics such as geographic data selection, analysis and presentation using spatial data-processing hardware and software techniques. Applies use of Earth systems data to develop an individual hands-on study. 3 Cr. Fall, Spring.
ESC 432 Tropical Meteorology (A). Prerequisite: ESC 311, MTH 201, and P HS 201. Provides a comprehensive understanding of the weather systems and climatic fluctuations of the tropics. Also, covers the atmosphere-ocean interaction at various time scales and discusses the possible influence of the tropical tropospheric events on the weather and climate of the middle latitudes. 3 Cr. Alternate Spring.
ESC 442 Advanced Topics in the Earth Sciences (A). Introduces topics of current interest and/or topics that are not covered in other earth science courses. An outline of selected topics will be announced each time the course is offered. 3 Cr.
ESC 452 Mesoscale Meteorology (A). Prerequisites: ESC 312, MTH 201, and PHS 201. Examines atmospheric circulations on the mesoscale as defined by observations of meteorological phenomena, the spatial resolution of observational net works, and theory. Atmospheric motion classified in this way will be studied within the spectrum of the broader atmospheric variability. Perturbations on the mesoscale will be defined on the basis of physical characteristics and temporal evolution. Particular attention will be given to the development and forecasting of severe storms. 3 Cr. Alternate Spring.
ESC 455 Introduction to Soils Science (A). Prerequisites: GEL 101, CHM 205 or instructor's permission. Covers the formation, properties and characterization of soils, especially those found in New York state; measurement of physical and chemical properties in field and classroom; and management, conservation, and applications of soil survey. 3 Cr. Fall.
ESC 457 Marine Geology-Bahamas (A). Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. Cross-listed as BIO 457. Provides field studies of the geology and ecology of San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. Topic to be investigated by advisement. Two-week off-campus course during winter intersession. 3 Cr. Winter.
ESC 460 Meteorological Internship (A). Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. Provides first-hand knowledge concerning the application of meteorology to industrial and governmental requirements. Requires group work in scientific fields. Allows students to design and conduct applied meteorological research. 1-3 Cr.
ESC 463 Water Quality Studies (A). Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. Covers water quality related to its beneficial uses and location in the hydrologic cycle through sanitary surveys, and field and lab test procedures. Also covers problems of analysis, potable water treatment, and implementation of abatement procedures. Directed study. 1-3 Cr.
ESC 464 Environmental Internship (A). Prerequisite: ESC 411, 414 or instructor's permission. Allows for application of skills acquired in course work to selected environmental problems. Directed by professionals in the field; project work must meet their standards. Deals primarily with water, but also may involve air quality, soils and landfill studies. 1-3 Cr.
ESC 481 Communications Meteorology (B). Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. Allows for the study and practice of specific professional activities dealing with the communication of meteorological information to mass audiences via electronic and/or printed media. Provides individually designed programs in which students complete a work experience or independent project. 1 Cr.
ESC 490 Weather Briefing (A). Prerequisite: ESC 312. Familiarizes students with state-of-the-art weather analysis and forecasting systems. Provides for observation and presentation of weather briefings and forecasts using these products. 1 Cr. Fall.
ESC 493 Seminar in Earth Science Problems (A). Prerequisite: ESC 391, senior status. In-depth consideration of an earth sciences topic beyond formal course offerings; synthesis of material from back ground of courses taken to be applied in technical report. The report will also be presented in a critical, professional setting to faculty and students. 2 Cr. Fall.
ESC 499 Independent Study (A). Prerequisite: ESC 200 or 210. To be defined in consultation with the instructor-sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Advisement prior to registration. 1-3 Cr.
GEL 100 Our Earth (A,N). Develops an under standing of our Earth and of the processes that operate within it and upon its surface; and basic scientific principles and Earth phenomena of importance including the observation of rocks, minerals, landforms, structures, volcanoes, earthquakes, water on and beneath the surface, and other natural processes that affect Earth and life. (Students taking this course may not take GEL 101 for credit.) 3 Cr. Every Semester.
GEL 101 Our Earth (A,L). Studies our Earth and the processes operating within and upon it. Covers basic scientific principles and phenomena including mineral and rock formation, volcanoes, earth quakes, landforms, structure, surface and ground water and other natural processes that affect Earth and life. Includes laboratory study of minerals, rocks, maps used by geologists, and aerial photo graphs. Requires two local field trips. (Students taking this course may not take GEL 100 or 102 for credit.) 4 Cr. Every Semester.
GEL 102 Lab Experiences in Physical Geology (A). Studies crystals with microscope; identification and genetic interpretation of rocks and minerals; interpretation of topographic and geologic maps and cross-sections; and interpretation of geologic structures from maps and aerial photographs. Requires field study of geological features and materials. 1 Cr. Every Semester.
GEL 302 Historical Geology (A). Prerequisite: GEL 101. Covers the origin and evolution of the Earth and the historical development of life and the North American continent; and the background of the modern concepts of geology, including plate tectonics. Develops observational skills in the laboratory and field. 4 Cr. Spring.
GEL 306 Introduction to Paleontology (A). Prerequisite: GEL 101, 302 or instructor's permission. Covers the principles of paleontology and the study of fossils including facies and index fossils, environmental control of species morphology, the basis of taxonomy, general biostratigraphic concepts and practices, and the use of fossils in the economic and scientific world. Presents various invertebrate phyla as examples of the concepts. 4 Cr. Alternate Fall.
GEL 312 Mineral Science (A). Prerequisites: GEL 101 or instructor's permission; CHM 205. Introduces the structure and properties of mineral materials with emphasis on principles of bonding, crystal chemistry, crystal symmetry and morphology. Covers composition, atomic arrangement, identification and classification of major mineral groups, their geologic occurrences, and their role in modern technology. Laboratories focus on crystal symmetry and geometrical crystallography, physical and chemical properties of minerals, and their use in separating and identifying mineral species. Required weekend field trip to Adirondack localities. 4 Cr. Alternate Fall.
GEL 314 Optical Mineralogy (A). Prerequisite: GEL 312. Covers the theory of light transmission through non-opaque solids and their examination using a polarizing microscope, as well as the relation of optical properties to crystal structure and symmetry. Emphasizes the use of microscope techniques in the laboratory for characterizing and identifying crystalline materials as crushed fragments and in thin sections. 4 Cr.
GEL 323 Our National Parks (A). An introduction to selected national parks and monuments, their geological origin, features of special interest, and change through time, including the status of the park/monument today. NOT ACCEPTABLE CREDIT TOWARD ANY MAJOR OR MINOR OFFERED THROUGH THE EARTH SCIENCES DEPARTMENT. 3 Cr.
GEL 324 New York Parks and Recreational Areas (A). Introduction to the natural history of selected New York State Parks and recreational areas. Back ground information on the physical composition of the Earth, the principal erosional and constructional agents which have shaped the Earth, and the importance of the Ice Age for New York state. NOT ACCEPTABLE CREDIT TOWARD ANY MAJOR OR MINOR OFFERED THROUGH THE EARTH SCIENCES DEPARTMENT. 3 Cr.
GEL 362 Energy and Mineral Resources Issues (A). The significance of energy and mineral resources to modern social, economic, and political forces. Current issues involving energy and mineral resources are addressed through local to global case studies. Participants will discuss perspectives on energy and mineral resource development and exploitation, present use and management, and alternatives to current utilization practices. 3 Cr.
GEL 399 Independent Study (A). Prerequisite: GEL 302. To be defined in consultation with the instructor-sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Advisement prior to registration. 1-3 Cr.
GEL 408 Structural Geology (A). Prerequisite: GEL 302 or instructor's permission. Covers the principles of mechanical behavior of rocks during deformation; theories of origin of major and minor rock structures (folds, faults, rock cleavage, etc.) and their relationships to each other; and plate tectonics models for some major crustal structures. Emphasizes in the laboratory techniques of analyzing and solving three-dimensional problems, and gathering structural data in the field. Requires a weekend field trip and report. 4 Cr. Alternate Spring.
GEL 411 Stratigraphy and Sedimentology (A). Prerequisite: GEL 302. Covers the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of sedimentary materials; sedimentary environments and geologic time; and the application of stratigraphic principles to a variety of problems involving sedimentary rocks in the geologic record. Employs techniques and instruments used in stratigraphy and sedimentology. 4 Cr. Alternate Fall.
GEL 415 Geomorphology (A). Prerequisites: GEL 101. Covers the surface features of Earth and their origin. Emphasizes processes, both internal and external, which interact to produce landforms. Stresses an analytical approach to the formulation of valid inferences based on accurate observations. Requires a weekend field trip, and term paper based on library research of approved topic. 3 Cr. Fall.
GEL 416 Landform Analysis Laboratory (A). Prerequisite or corequisite: GEL 415. Focuses on the recognition and interpretation of landforms in a variety of geologic and climatic settings. Uses topographic contour maps, airphotos, radar and false color images of Earth's surface obtained from air craft and satellites. Correlates landforms with occurrence of geologic materials. Illustrates applications of geologic principles to human problems. 1 Cr. Fall.
GEL 431 Petrology (A). Prerequisite: GEL 312. Studies the processes by which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks form. Covers the principles of rock examination which reveal operation of those processes, as well as the relationships of rock forming processes to plate tectonics. Entails recognition, description and interpretation of mineralogic and textural features in hard specimens. 4 Cr. Alternate Spring.
GEL 456 Topics in Field Geology of the Northeast (A). Prerequisite: GEL 101 or equivalent and instructor's permission. Aspects of geology of selected regions of the northeastern U.S. from field observations. Techniques of gathering and recording geologic data in the field, interpretation of topographic and geologic maps, and identification/examination of rocks and structures in the field. Two-week field trip with short field projects. Can be repeated for multiple credit with instructor's permission. 3 Cr.
GEL 457 Geochemistry (A). Prerequisites: GEL 101, CHM 205, CHM 206. This course will apply basic chemical principles of thermodynamics, kinetics, and equilibrium to the investigation of common geologic problems ranging from the crystallization of silicate melts to surface reactions on soil minerals. The laboratory exercises will focus on application of good laboratory practices to wet chemical and instrumental techniques involving geologic materials. 4 Cr. Alternate Fall.
GEL 462 Groundwater (A). Prerequisite: GEL 101. The study of groundwater; its occurrence, movement and use, and its place in the hydrologic cycle. The origin of aquifers, use and effects of wells, and water quality and groundwater problems are examined. 4 Cr. Spring.
GEL 463 Environmental Geology (A). Prerequisite: GEL 101, GEL 415, or instructor's permission. Human interaction with the geologic environment; response of land and water systems; strategies of mitigation and management; emphasis on recognizing natural system behavior; developing solutions to current environmental questions. Weekend field trip required. 3 Cr. Spring.
GEL 464 Environmental Geology Laboratory (A). Prerequisite: GEL 101, GEL 415, and credit or enrollment in GEL 463. Application of geologic principles and techniques to solving modern environmental problems; management of natural resources. Weekend field trip required. 1 Cr. Spring.
GEL 476 Geologic Techniques (A). Prerequisite: GEL 306 or 312 or instructor's permission. Covers the techniques needed by the professional geologist; complex mineral and rock forms; interpretation of map and structure sections; thin-sectioning, surveying, photomicrographic methods; and the use of seismograph methods. 2 Cr.
GEL 480 Advanced Topics in Geology (A). Prerequisites: GEL 101, GEL 302. Covers topics of cur rent interest or topics that are not covered in detail in other geology courses. An outline of selected topics will be announced each time that the course is offered. Can be repeated for multiple credit with instructor's permission. 3 Cr.
GEL 499 Independent Study (A). Prerequisite: GEL 302. Arranged in consultation with the instructor- sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Advisement prior to registration. 1-3 Cr.
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