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Undergraduate Courses

ENV 201 Environmental Science (A,N,Y). Non-majors only. Environmental science is an interdisciplinary study combining ideas and information from the natural and social sciences. The eight integrated themes of lecture and discussion are biodiversity, sustainability, connections in nature, pollution and its prevention, population growth, energy consumption and efficiency, solutions to environmental problems, and the importance of individuals changing their lifestyles and working with others to bring about environmental change. 3 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 202 Environmental Science (A,L,Y). $50 Course fee required: Required for majors. Open to non-majors. Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary study combining ideas and information from the natural and social sciences. The eight integrated themes of lecture and discussion are biodiversity, sustainability, connections in nature, pollution and its prevention, population growth, energy consumption and efficiency, solutions to environmental problems, and the importance of individuals changing their lifestyles and working with others to bring about environmental change. Laboratory and field activities emphasize hands-on applications of environmental science methods, problem solving, and proper writing of laboratory reports. 4 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 204 Biology of Organisms (A,L). $50 Course fee required: Required for majors. Open to non-majors. Explores basic concepts in the biological sciences from a whole organism (animals and plants) and environmental science perspective. The unifying theme for the course is evolution, and T. H. Dobzhansky's dictum that "Nothing in biology is understandable except in the light of evolution." Topics covered in lectures and laboratories include scientific method, molecular and population genetics, cell biology, diversity of life, and evolution and natural selection. 4 Cr. Spring.

ENV 290 Introduction to Honors Research (A). This course provides an introduction to scientific research and the scientific method. Field and laboratory techniques will be introduced in the context of developing a thesis proposal. Only students with less than 54 college credits may register. Requires prior approval of the faculty mentor. 1 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 303 Ecology (A,Y). $50 Course fee required: Cross-listed as BIO 303. Prerequisites: ENV 202 or ENV 204. Required for majors, open to non-majors. Ecology addresses interrelationships among organisms and the physical environment. Considers energy flow, nutrient cycling, population and community dynamics, principles of animal behavior, and natural history in lecture, laboratory and field studies. 4 Cr. Spring.

ENV 337 Biostatistics (A,M). Prerequisite: ENV 202 & (MTH 111 or higher level MTH). Introduction to statistical analysis including descriptive statistics, test selection (including t-tests, regression, ANOVA and nonparametric alternatives), calculation, and interpretation, hypothesis formation and testing, Consideration is given to experimental design and appropriate evaluation of statistical application and interpretation. *fulfills undergrad core req. for 437 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 389 American Literature and Environmental Imagination (A). This interdisciplinary course explores American environmental writing from both scientific and literary perspectives and investigates the relationship between natural science, natural history and environmental literature. Examines how subjective and objective investigations of the natural world enrich one another and lead to a more complete sense of place. Course includes lectures, discussions, group presentations and field exercises emphasizing description, measurement and aesthetic response. 3 Cr.

ENV 400 Plant Diversity (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303. Introduction to the diversity of plants from an evolutionary perspective to taxonomic and botanical characteristics. Laboratory and field work surveys plant structures and principles of plant classifications and identification from the cellular to organismal level. Projects include plant collection and preservation, plant propagation, plant reproduction, and review and presentation of botanical literature. 4 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 401 Water Conservation and Management (A). Prerequisite: ENV 303. Water Conservation and Management will chronicle the struggle to satiate demands for freshwater across a multitude of users, while still meeting basic human and ecosystem needs. Students will be exposed to water management challenges from around the world and Great Lakes region, and ongoing efforts to conserve and protect access to clean freshwater in to the future. 3 Cr.

ENV 404 Stream Ecology (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, and 303 with min grade C-. Multiple Course fees: Introduction to stream ecology. Topics include geomorphology, hydrology, stream chemistry and temperature, nutrient spiraling, trophic interactions, primary production, stream invertebrate ecology, stream vertebrate ecology, biodiversity in streams, stream habitat diversity, and stream management and restoration. 4 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 406 Wildlife Ecology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, 303. Introduction to the scientific study of wildlife biology. Lecture topics include population ecology, behavior, nutrition, disease, habitat management, predator prey systems, economics, and the human dimensions of wildlife management. Laboratories and field work include radio telemetry, census methods, aging white-tailed deer, and computer modeling. 4 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 407 Invasion Ecology (A). Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, & 303 with min grade C-. Topics include invasive species transport and spread, impacts of invasive species on communities and ecosystems, traits of invasive species, and management strategies for invasions. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 413 Topics in Plant Biology (A). Students with a substantial background in plant biology or ecology review recent scientific literature while addressing selected topics in plant biology, ecology or systematics. 3 Cr.

ENV 419 Limnology (A). $60 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, & 303. Introduces students to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of lakes and streams. Lecture topics include top-down: bottom-up control of food webs, eutrophication, nutrient cycling, acid precipitation effects on lakes, paleolimnology, etc. Recommended for students interested in oceanography and marine biology. Required for students in the aquatic ecology track of the environmental science major. Laboratory and field methods covered include sampling and identification of selected aquatic organisms, chemical analysis of water, and operation of physical and chemical sampling gear. Includes field exercises on lakes and streams. 4 Cr. Fall.

ENV 424 Movement and Migration Ecology (A). Prerequisite: ENV 303. Introduction to movement and migration ecology across multiple taxonomic groups. Lecture topics will include an introduction to the field (e.g. definitions, patterns of movement, methods of study), a review of migratory life history evolution, examinations of the proximate and organismal controls of migration, navigation and orientation, and explorations of human interactions with migratory organisms and consequences for health, economics, and conservation. 3 Cr.

ENV 427 Animal Behavior (A). Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, & 303. Introduction to the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include methods for the observation and quantification of behavior, natural selection and evolution of behavior, behavioral genetics, neural and physiological mechanisms of behavior, development of behavior, communication, migration and orientation, foraging behavior, social behavior, sexual reproduction, parental investment, and mating systems. 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 430 Ornithology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, & 303. Introduction to the scientific study of birds. Explores their form, function, ecology, and evolution. Topics include anatomy, physiology, origins and biophysics of flight, migration and annual cycle, mating systems, and population and community ecology of birds. Includes lab and field study of anatomy and flight, identification techniques, census methods, and trapping and banding. 4 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 435 Northern Wetlands (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, and 303 with minimum grade of C-, and ENV 446. Introduction to wetlands of the northern United States - peatlands and Great Lakes coastal marshes. Wetland development will be addressed starting with underlying geology and hydrology, then proceeding to biogeochemistry and development of plant communities and faunal habitats. Human impacts on these wetland types will be assessed, along with potential means for preventing degradation and restoring wetland functions. 3 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 436 Water Quality Analysis (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with minimum grade of C-, and CHM 206. Introduction to standard methods and analytical techniques associated with environmental chemistry. Students gain experience, including set up and trouble shooting, with UV-V spectrophotometry, wet chemical techniques by autoanlyser, fluorometry, gas chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, by analyzing unknowns. Although the medium for analysis is water, methods are applicable to air samples, tissues and soils. 4 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 438 Ecological Data Analysis in R (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with minimum grade of C-, and ENV 437. Topics include an introduction to the R language, writing simple functions, creating graphs, and analyzing ecological data using descriptive, univariate, and multivariate techniques. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 439 Conservation Biology (A). Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a min grade C-. Introduction to the scientific study of conservation biology. Examines current theories and data from evolutionary biology, ecology, and genetics as they relate to the conservation of biological diversity. Topics include causes of extinction, habitat loss and fragmentation, design of nature reserves, landscape ecology, application of basic principles of population biology to species conservation, and restoration ecology. 3 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 440 Herpetology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303. Introduction to the scientific study of reptiles and amphibians. Explores their form, function, ecology, and evolution. Topics include anatomy, physiology, mating systems, population and community ecology of reptiles and amphibians, and their conservation biology. Includes lab and field study of identification techniques, capture and census methods. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 444 Plant and Ecosystem Ecology (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. Introduction to the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world and the stresses they face due to global environmental change such as rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, global warming, declining biodiversity, invasive species and elevated nitrogen deposition. Systems will be compared and contrasted with respect to their major characteristics, including vegetation, energy flow, and nutrient cycling and inputs. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 446 Wetland Ecology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. In-depth study of wetland science, including wetland types, functions and values, hydrology, biogeochemistry, development and succession, and plant and animal communities. Focuses on practical application of knowledge gained and concludes with wetland management and restoration, as well as wetland management problems. 4 Cr. Fall.

ENV 447 Wetland Delineation (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-, and 446. There is a course fee of $50.00. Introduction to technical criteria, field indicators, and accepted methods for identifying and delineating wetlands. Topics include the history of wetland regulation, hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation. Laboratory and field activities will focus on identification of hydrologic indicators, soils, and plant communities to determine wetland boundaries, as well as the understanding and use of the Army Corps of Engineers 1987 Wetland Delineation Manual. 3 Cr.

ENV 448 Restoration Ecology (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. Introduction to restoration of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic ecosystems to be addressed by focusing on regulatory constraints, site characterization/evaluation, conceiving and designing restoration projects that fit within the surrounding landscape, monitoring requirements, control of invasives, and adaptive management. Students working in groups will develop conceptual restoration projects of their own choosing. 3 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 452 Environmental Laws and Regulations (A). Introduction to key federal and state environmental laws, how branches of government interact to enforce environmental laws and regulations, and the roles scientists and lawyers play in resolving environmental issues. 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 457 Marine Biology-Bahamas (A). Cross-listed as ESC 457. Prerequisite: One laboratory science course. Prepare in the spring semester for a Spring Break field experience in coral reef biology and geology on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas. Study identification, behavior, and ecology of marine organisms in five habitats associated with coral reefs. Learn how to prepare a scientific field notebook and to design, conduct, and report on a personal research project. 3 Cr. Spring.

ENV 459 Mammalogy (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, & 303 with a minimum grade of C-. Introduction to the scientific study of mammals. Explores their form, function, ecology, and evolution. Topics include origins, anatomy, physiology, diet and feeding strategies, population and community ecology, and social systems. Laboratory and field activities emphasize mammalian classification, habitat selection, and population biology. 4 Cr. Odd Fall.

ENV 462 Aquatic Toxicology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-, and CHM 206. Introduction to performing aquatic tests on water and sediment using standard fish and aquatic invertebrate test species. This will be accomplished through lectures, hands-on labs, data analyses, and student presentations. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 464 Aquaculture (A). $40 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. An introduction to the principles and practices of intensive and extensive aquaculture. Topics include system design and operation; water quality maintenance; diet and nutrition; reproduction; selective breeding and genetics; disease identification and treatment; and the biology of cultured organisms. 3 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 466 Great Lakes Issues (A). Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. Introduction to the major environmental issues facing the Great Lakes. Topics include an overview of the physical, chemical and biological components of the Great Lakes ecosystem, toxic substances and areas of concern, invasive species, nearshore health and nonpoint source pollution, habitat and wildlife destruction and degradation, alteration of natural lake levels, and action plans to monitor, assess and protect the overall health of the Great Lakes ecosystem (GLRI, LaMPs). 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 476 Animal Ecophysiology (A). Prerequisites: ENV 204, 303. Introduction to physiological adaptations of animals to their physical environment and the influence of these adaptations on animal distributions. Topics include temperature and energy metabolism, water and ion balance, oxygen availability, sensory and reproductive adaptations. Biochemical, cellular, and organism responses to these factors will be examined using an integrative and comparative approach. 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 477 Field Biology (A). $40 Course fee required: Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. Introduction to the flora and fauna of various habitats in Western New York. Topics include structure and function of communities, species identification, qualitative and quantitative assessment of communities and ecosystems, and general conservation theory and practice. 1-4 Cr.

ENV 483 Aquatic Invertebrates (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a minimum grade of C-. Introduction to the scientific study of aquatic invertebrates and their importance in stream and lake ecosystems. Topics include invertebrate biology and ecology, classification and identification (insects, crustaceans, mites, annelids, mollusks, etc.), use of dichotomous keys and sampling equipment, and preparation techniques. Prepares students to predict habitat or water quality conditions based on the invertebrate fauna present. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 484 Fisheries Science and Management (A). Course fee of $60.00. Prerequisite: ENV 303. Introduction to fish ecology and fisheries science and management. Lecture topics include ecology (e.g. environmental constraints, bioenergetics, competition, predation, biodiversity), population dynamics (e.g., mortality, growth, recruitment), and management (e.g., history, regulations, habitat and population manipulations, stocking, and aquatic systems). Laboratory will focus on practical experience required by fishery scientists; collection methods, fish identification, quantitative measures (e.g., length-mass relationships), age and growth, mark-recapture. 4 Cr.

ENV 486 Fish Biology (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with a min grade of C-. Introduction to the general biology of fishes. Topics include fish diversity, evolution, anatomy, movement, osmoregulation, growth, reproduction, sensory systems. Weekly laboratories focus on practical experience with techniques used by fishery scientists: collection methods, anatomy and physiology, age and growth, quantitative measures and fish identification using taxonomic keys. 3 Cr.

ENV 492 Global Environmental Issues (A). Prerequisites: ENV 202, 204, 303 with minimum grade of C-. This capstone course for senior environmental science majors will explore one or more major global environmental issues during the semester. Students will research the topic, analyze primary literature, engage in class discussion and formal speaking, and write a paper critically evaluating the issue and what should be done about it. 3 Cr. Spring.

ENV 493 Environmental Science and Ecology Seminar (A). Prerequisite: ENV 303. This course provides a venue for professional development and discussion of current topics in Environmental Science and Ecology. Juniors and seniors only. Permission of Instructor required. 1 Cr. Fall.

ENV 494 Honors Research (A). Prerequisite: ENV 290. This course provides an independent research experience for Honors students in Environmental Science and Ecology with a faculty mentor (to be identified). Juniors and seniors only. Requires prior approval of the faculty mentor. Only three credits of ENV 494 can count towards the Degree. 1-3 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 495 Topics in Environmental Science (A). Introduces a special field of study in the environmental sciences not offered in the regular curriculum. Details reflect student demand, needs, topics of interest, and instructor availability. 1-6 Cr. By Arrangement.

ENV 496 Honors Thesis (A). Prerequisite: ENV 290. The Honors Research Project culminates in a written Honors Thesis to be presented at Scholars Day or another appropriate scientific forum. The thesis must be approved by the Honors Coordinator and College Honors Program designee. Requires prior approval of the faculty mentor. 1 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 497 Undergraduate Internship (A). Designed for the student who wishes to gain experience working with an environmental organization in the public or private sector (e.g., industry, government, environmental organizations). A total of three credits from ENV 497, ENV 498 (Collaborative Research) and ENV 499 (Independent Study) combined can be applied toward the Environmental Science major. 1-3 Cr. By Arrangement.

ENV 498 Collaborative Environmental Biology Research (A). In collaboration with a faculty mentor, the student designs, conducts and prepares a scientific report on a research project in the field or laboratory. A total of three credits from ENV 497, (Undergraduate Internship), ENV 498 and ENV 499 (Independent Study) combined can be applied toward the Environmental Science major. 1-3 Cr. By Arrangement.

ENV 499 Independent Study in Environmental Science (A). In collaboration with a faculty mentor, the student reviews literature and prepares a paper on a topic of interest in the environmental sciences. A total of three credits from ENV 497 (Undergraduate Internship), ENV 498 (Collaborative Research) and ENV 499 combined can be applied toward the Environmental Science major. 1-6 Cr. By Arrangement.

Graduate Courses

ENV 500 Plant Diversity (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the diversity of plants from an evolutionary perspective to taxonomic and botanical characteristics. Laboratory and field work surveys plant structures and principles of plant classifications and identification from the cellular to organismal level. Projects include plant collection and preservation, plant propagation, plant reproduction, and review and presentation of botanical literature. 4 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 501 (A). Prerequisite: ENV303. Water Conservation and Management will chronicle in depth the struggle to satiate demands for freshwater across a multitude of users, while still meeting basic human and ecosystem needs. Students will be exposed to water management challenges from around the world and Great Lakes region, and ongoing efforts to conserve and protect access to clean freshwater into the future. 3 Cr.

ENV 504 Stream Ecology (A). Prerequisites - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course; Multiple Course fees. In depth study of stream ecology. Topics include geomorphology, hydrology, stream chemistry and temperature, nutrient spiraling, trophic interactions, primary production, stream invertebrate ecology, stream vertebrate ecology, biodiversity in streams, stream habitat diversity, and stream management and restoration. 4 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 506 Wildlife Ecology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of wildlife ecology. Lecture topics include population ecology, behavior, nutrition, disease, habitat management, predator-prey systems, economics and the human dimensions of wildlife management. Laboratories and field work include radio telemetry, census methods, aging white-tailed deer and computer modeling. 4 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 507 Invasion Ecology (A). Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Topics include invasive species transport and spread, impacts of invasive species on communities and ecosystems, traits of invasive species, and management strategies for invasions. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 513 Topics in Plant Biology (A). Prerequisites - ENV 400 or 405 or 500 or 505. In-depth discussion of recent scientific literature and experimental data in plant biology, ecology, and systematics. Students critically analyze current scientific literature and write a research paper. 3 Cr.

ENV 519 Principles of Limnology (A). $60 Course fee required: Prerequisites - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course; Introduces students to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of lakes and streams. Lecture topics include top-down: bottom-up control of food webs, eutrophication, nutrient cycling, acid precipitation effects on lakes, paleolimnology, etc. Recommended for students interested in oceanography and marine biology. Laboratory and field methods covered include sampling and identification of selected aquatic organisms, chemical analysis of water, and operation of physical and chemical sampling gear. Includes field exercises on lakes and streams. 4 Cr. Fall.

ENV 524 Movement and Migration Ecology (A). Prerequisite Env 303. Introduction to movement and migration ecology across multiple taxonomic groups. Lecture topics will include an introduction to the field (e.g. definitions, patterns of movement, methods of study), a review of migratory life history evolution, examinations of the proximate and organismal controls of migration, navigation and orientation, and explorations of human interactions with migratory organisms and consequences for health, economics, and conservation. Graduate students will be required to demonstrate greater proficiency on exams and synthesis paper, undertake additional readings, and lead a class discussion on one peer-reviewed journal article. 3 Cr.

ENV 527 Animal Behavior (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include methods for the observation and quantification of behavior, natural selection and evolution of behavior, behavioral genetics, neural and physiological mechanisms of behavior, development of behavior, communication, migration and orientation, foraging behavior, social behavior, sexual reproduction, parental investment, and mating systems. Reading and discussion of primary literature. 3 Cr. Odd Fall.

ENV 530 Ornithology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of birds. Explores their form, function, ecology and evolution. Topics includes anatomy, physiology, origins and biophysics of flight, migration and annual cycle, mating systems, and population and community ecology of birds. Includes lab and field study of anatomy and flight, identification techniques, census methods, and trapping and banding. 4 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 535 Northern Wetlands (A). Prerequisites - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course, & ENV 446 or 546. In-depth study of wetlands of the northern United States - peatlands and Great Lakes coastal marshes. Wetland development will be addressed starting with underlying geology and hydrology, then proceeding to biogeochemistry and development of plant communities and faunal habitats. Human impacts on these wetland types will be assessed, along with potential means for preventing degradation and restoring wetland functions. 3 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 537 Biostatistics (A). Graduate introduction to univariate statistical analyses. Topics include descriptive statistics, hypothesis formation, test selection, calculation, and interpretation (including t-tests, regression, ANOVA, and non parametric alternatives) Consideration is given to appropriate evaluation of statistical application, interpretation, and presentation. *elective 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 538 Ecological Data Analysis in R (A). Prerequisite - ENV 537 or instructor permission. Topics include an introduction to the R language, writing simple functions, creating graphs, and analyzing ecological data using descriptive, univariate, and multivariate techniques. 3 Cr.

ENV 539 Conservation Biology (A). Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of conservation biology. Examines current theories and data from evolutionary biology, ecology and genetics as they relate to the conservation of biological diversity. Topics include causes of extinction, habitat loss and fragmentation, design of nature reserves, landscape ecology, application of basic principles of population biology to species conservation, and restoration ecology. 3 Cr. Spring.

ENV 540 Herpetology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of reptiles and amphibians. Explores their form, function, ecology and evolution. Topics include anatomy, physiology, mating systems, population and community ecology of reptiles and amphibians, and their conservation biology. Includes lab and field study of identification techniques, capture and census methods. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 544 Plant and Ecosystem Ecology (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Introduction to the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world and the stresses they face due to global environmental change such as rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, global warming, declining biodiversity, invasive species and elevated nitrogen deposition. Systems will be compared and contrasted with respect to their major characteristics, including vegetation, energy flow, and nutrient cycling and inputs. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 546 Wetland Ecology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of wetland science, including wetland types, functions and values, hydrology, biogeochemistry, development and succession, and plant and animal communities. The course is directed toward practical application of knowledge gained and concludes with wetland management and restoration and addressing wetland management problems. 4 Cr. Fall.

ENV 547 Wetland Delineation (A). Prerequisite - ENV 546 or 446. There is a course fee of $50.00. Introduction to technical criteria, field indicators, and accepted methods for identifying and delineating wetlands. Topics include the history of wetland regulation, hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation. Laboratory and field activities will focus on identification of hydrologic indicators, soils, and plant communities to determine wetland boundaries, as well as the understanding and use of the Army Corps of Engineers 1987 Wetland Delineation Manual. 3 Cr.

ENV 548 Restoration Ecology (A). Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth approach to restoration of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic ecosystems to be addressed by focusing on regulatory constraints, site characterization/ evaluation, conceiving and designing restoration projects that fit within the surrounding landscape, monitoring requirements, control of invasives, and adaptive management. Students working in groups will develop conceptual restoration projects of their own choosing in terrestrial, wetland, or aquatic ecosystems. Case studies will be assigned for further analysis of restoration options. 3 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 552 Environmental Laws and Regulations (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth discussion of key federal and state environmental laws, how branches of government interact to enforce environmental laws and regulations, and the roles scientists and lawyers play in resolving environmental issues. 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 559 Mammalogy (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of mammals. Explores their form, function, ecology and evolution. Topics include origins, anatomy, physiology, diet and feeding strategies, population and community ecology, and social systems. Laboratory and field activities emphasize mammalian classification, habitat selection and population biology. 4 Cr. Odd Fall.

ENV 562 Aquatic Toxicology. $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course; one 200-level chemistry course. In-depth study of toxicity testing equipment, procedures and organisms. Students design toxicity tests and culture test organisms. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 564 Aquaculture (A). $40 Course fee required: Prerequisite: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the principles and practices of aquaculture. Topics include history of aquaculture and its future outlook; types and components of culture systems; water quality; nutrition; reproduction and selective breeding; aquatic animal health; culture of major species; environmental concerns associated with aquacultural operations; regulations pertaining to aquaculture practices; and aquaculture marketing. 3 Cr. Even Fall.

ENV 566 Great Lakes Issues (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the major environmental issues facing the Great Lakes. Topics include an overview of the physical, chemical and biological components of the Great Lakes ecosystem, toxic substances and areas of concern, invasive species, nearshore health and nonpoint source pollution, habitat and wildlife destruction and degradation, alteration of natural lake levels, and action plans to monitor, assess and protect the overall health of the Great Lakes ecosystem (GLRI, LaMPs). 3 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 576 Animal Ecophysiology (A). Prerequisites: ENV 204, 303. Introduction to physiological adaptations of animals to their physical environment and the influence of these adaptations on animal distributions. Topics include temperature and energy metabolism, water and ion balance, oxygen availability, sensory and reproductive adaptations. Biochemical, cellular, and organism responses to these factors will be examined using an integrative and comparative approach. 3 Cr. Fall.

ENV 577 Field Biology. $40 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Explores flora and fauna of various habitats in Western New York. Topics include structure and function of communities, species identification, qualitative and quantitative assessment of communities and ecosystems, and general conservation theory and practice. 4 Cr.

ENV 583 Aquatic Invertebrates. $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of aquatic invertebrates and their importance in stream and lake ecosystems. Topics include invertebrate biology and ecology, classification and identification (insects, crustaceans, mites, annelids, mollusks, etc.), use of dichotomous keys and sampling equipment, and preparation techniques. Prepares students to predict habitat or water quality conditions based on the invertebrate fauna present. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.

ENV 584 Fisheries Science and Management (A). Course fee of $60.00. Prerequisite ENV 303. Introduction to fish ecology and fisheries science and management. Lecture topics include ecology (e.g. environmental constraints, bioenergetics, competition, predation, biodiversity), population dynamics (e.g., mortality, growth, recruitment), and management (e.g., history, regulations, habitat and population manipulations, stocking, and aquatic systems). Laboratory will focus on practical experience required by fishery scientists; collection methods, fish identification, quantitative measures (e.g., length-mass relationships), age and growth, mark-recapture. Graduate students will be required to demonstrate greater proficiency on homework, exams, laboratory reports, and laboratory practical, undertake additional readings, and develop/present a research proposal relevant to Fisheries Science and Management. 4 Cr.

ENV 586 Fish Biology (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisite - ENV303. Introduction to the general biology of fishes, including fish diversity and classification, evolution, morphology, anatomy, movement, osmoregulation, nutrition, growth, reproduction, sensory systems, and behavior. *elective 3 Cr.

ENV 616 Multivariate Statistics (A). Prerequisite: ENV 614. Provide students with a working knowledge of the basic concepts underlying the most important multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and multivariate regression analysis. More specifically, the course will help students to identify the appropriate multivariate method with respect to research questions and data sets; to compute multivariate statistical analysis using standard statistical software, interpret and present results; and provide hands-on practice with multivariate techniques that are employed in preparations of Theses, dissertations and research papers. 3 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 621 Water Chemistry (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisite: CHM 206. In-depth study of the theory and operation of analytical environmental chemistry instruments. Hands-on activities include flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), gas chromatography by micro-ECD, and autoanalyser techniques for nutrients. Extraction techniques for tissue (soxhletic) and water (C-18 empore filters) analysis are covered. Each student develops a water quality profile for a body of water. 4 Cr. Even Spring.

ENV 692 Graduate Intership (A). Designed for the student who wishes to gain experience working with an environmental organization in the public or private sector (e.g. industry, government, environmental organizations). Can be taken only once for credit. 1-3 Cr. By Arrangement.

ENV 695 Topics in Environmental Science (A). Designed for the student who wishes to gain experience in a special field of study. Details reflect student demand, needs, topics of interest, and instructor availability. 1-3 Cr. By Arrangement.

ENV 699 Independent Study in Environmental Science (A). Designed individually through consultation between student and instructor to suit the student's needs and interests and the special competence of the instructor. Additional requirements may be imposed by the department. 1-6 Cr. By Arrangement.

ENV 704 Research Thesis (A). Individual investigation of an original research problem to be submitted in a format acceptable to satisfy the requirements for the master's degree as determined by department rules and regulations. 1-6 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 705 Instroduction to Graduate Study and Research (A). The student takes two semester-long 1 credit seminars during the first year of the graduate program. Fall: Steps in the program, designing a thesis research project and critical review of scientific papers, Spring: scientific writing and critical review of scientific papers. 1-2 Cr. Every Semester.

ENV 706 Experimental Design (B). This course will present a framework for designing hypothesis-driven experiments that will result in publishable data and analyses. Students will translate a scientific question into testable hypotheses, design logical experiments, understand and avoid common pitfalls of experimental design, and understand and apply data management and quality control. *required 1 Cr. Spring.

ENV 707 Graduate Seminar in Scientific Writing (A). This course will focus on improving students' technical writing skills and introduce them to the format requirements of the Environmental Science and Ecology thesis. It also will teach students how to write, submit, and review scientific manuscripts. *required 1 Cr. Fall.

ENV 708 Professional Development (B). This course will prepare students for careers in their chosen environmental science profession or for future graduate study. Students will create a 5-year plan, develop effective application materials, improve their oral communication and networking skills, and present their research at a scientific conference. *required 1 Cr. Spring.

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