**PHS 115 Science and Society (A,N).**
Examines how science as an enterprise explains processes and phenomena that humans experience, infer, and observe. Using a specific theme (e.g. future of life on earth, anthropogenic climate change, mutation and exchange of genes from viruses to humans, space travel and biodiversity), the student will explore how scientists use basic principles of energy, matter, motion, behavior, ecology, and evolution to understand and predict phenomena on many different scales, ranging from the microscopic to universal. (Cross listed with ESC/GEP 115)
*3 Cr.*
*Every Semester.*

**PHS 205 Introduction to Physics I (with lab) (A,L).**
$5 Course fee required: Prerequisite: MTH 122. Algebra-based introductory physics. Covers the fundamental principles of mechanics. Covers linear, rotational and oscillatory motion including kinematics, Newton's laws, and energy and momentum and their conservation laws. Experiments explore the topics covered in the lectures. Closed to anyone who has successfully completed PHS 235. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. May not be applied to major or minor programs in physics.
*4 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 210 Introduction to Physics II (A,L).**
$5 Course fee required: Prerequisite: PHS 205 or PHS 235. Algebra-based introductory physics. Covers sound, thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, light, and modern physics. Experiments explore the topics covered in the lectures. Closed to anyone who has successfully completed PHS240. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week. May not be applied to Major or Minor programs in Physics.
*4 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 235 Physics I (A,L).**
$5 Course fee required: Corequisite: MTH 201. Calculus-based introductory physics. Introduces the fundamentals of mechanics from Kinematics to Newton's laws, energy, momentum and their conservation laws, rotational and harmonic motions, then statics and equilibrium. Experiments explore the topics covered in the lectures. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.
*4 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 240 Physics II (A).**
$5 Course fee required: Prerequisites: PHS 235; corequisite: MTH 202. Calculus-based introductory physics. Introduces fluids, waves and their propagation, thermodynamics, kinetic theory of gases, and the first and second law, as well as, the fundamentals of electricity and magnetism, from fields and potentials to electric circuits, and Maxwell's equations. Experiments explore the topics covered in the lectures. Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.
*4 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 307 Physics III (A).**
*Prerequisite: PHS 240; corequisite: MTH 203.*
The first part of a one year transition to advanced physics. Discusses topics in classical physics beyond the first year courses. Includes topics such as complex mechanical systems, statistical thermodynamics, electromagnetic fields and geometrical optics. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 308 Electronics Laboratory (A).**
*Prerequisite: ENG112.*
Introduction to electronics. Experiments include studying the limits of Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Laws, semiconductor devices including diodes, light emitting diodes, and transistors, and an introduction to modern electronics including programming Arduino microcontrollers.
*1 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 325 Optics and Electronics Laboratory (A).**
$5 Course fee required: Corequisite: PHS 307 and prerequisite ENG 112. Students study light by interactively investigating the speed of light, interference, diffraction, polarization, refraction, and interferometry. They also investigate electronics by studying circuits and circuit elements such as capacitors, transformers, diodes, LEDs, transistors, and other electronic elements. Brief lecture followed by experimentation each week.
*2 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 328 Modern Physics (A).**
*Prerequisite PHS 307.*
Provides an introduction to the theory of special relativity, quantum physics, atomic and nuclear physics, and elementary particle physics. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 332 Mathematical Methods of Physics (A).**
*Prerequisite: PHS 307 & corequisite MTH 255.*
Presents a survey of mathematical methods used in the physical sciences. Includes topics such as vector analysis, linear algebra, differential equations, complex numbers, partial differentiation, vector operators, multiple integrals, and Fourier series. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 345 Advanced Physics Laboratory I (A).**
$5 Course fee required: Prerequisites: MTH 203 PHS 325 and CHM 205. Covers the statistical treatment of data, propagation of errors, graphs, and report writing. Requires students to conduct experiments using modern physical measurement techniques, produce written scientific reports, and make oral presentations describing and analyzing the methods and their results. Three hours of lab per week.
*1 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 350 Advanced Physics Laboratory II (A).**
$5 Course fee required: Prerequisite: PHS 345 & corequisite CHM 206. Students conduct experiments using modern physical measurement techniques, produce written scientific reports, and make oral presentations describing their methods and analyzing their results. Three hours of lab per week.
*1 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 353 Classical Mechanics (A).**
*Prerequisite: PHS 332.*
Covers the theory of mechanical systems, including Newton's Laws, conservation principles, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations, and their applications. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 361 Spec Topics in Physics (A).**
*Prerequisites: PHS 328 and PHS 332, or permission of instructor.*
Provides an intermediate-level introduction to selected areas of physics. Possible topics include Condensed Matter Physics, Astrophysics, and others. May be taken only once for major credit. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Even Fall.*

**PHS 362 Solid State Physics (A).**
*Prerequisite: PHS332.*
This course will examine the physical nature of matter in the solid state. Topics will include crystal lattices, crystallographic imperfections, transport in metals and semiconductors, x-ray techniques, electronic band structure, semiconductor devices, and phonons.
*3 Cr.*

**PHS 368 Electricity and Magnetism (A).**
*Prerequisites: PHS 332.*
Covers the theory of electromagnetic fields using vector calculus. Includes electrostatic and magnetic fields in vacuum and in matter, time-varying fields, magnetic induction, Maxwell's Equations and the propagation of electromagnetic waves. May include applications to radiation fields, waveguides, and superconductors. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 399 Independent Study in Physics (A).**
Arranged in consultation with the instructor-sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Advisement prior to registration.
*1-6 Cr.*

**PHS 403 Physics Project Seminar I (A).**
*Prerequisite: senior status and permission of instructor.*
In-depth investigation of an individual topic in physics with agreement of a faculty mentor. Includes topic and project development and investigation as well as attendance at seminars. One hour of seminar/discussion per week.
*1 Cr.*
*Fall.*

**PHS 404 Physics Project Seminar II (A).**
*Prerequisite: PHS 403.*
Continuation of PHS 403. Student research culminates in preparation and presentation of a public lecture and poster. Attendance at seminars is also required. One hour of seminar/discussion per week.
*1 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 411 Quantum Mechanics (A).**
*Prerequisites: PHS 328 and PHS 332.*
Provides a rigorous introduction to quantum mechanics. Topics include the Schrödinger equation with various potentials, hydrogen-like atoms, spin, and approximation methods. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*
*Spring.*

**PHS 415 Thermal Physics (A).**
*Prerequisites: PHS 332.*
The physics of large numbers of particles can be treated in two ways. The first half of the course will investigate the principles of thermodynamics, the measurement of the bulk properties of matter (energy, entropy, enthalpy, etc.) and the exchange of heat between systems. Understanding 'why' heat flows from hot to cold, however, requires an understanding of the quantum behavior of atoms and the statistics that connect one atom with many. In the second half of the course, we will examine the statistical behavior that underlies the laws of thermodynamics. We will explore quantum and classical probability distributions, as well as partition functions and their associated thermodynamical potentials.
*3 Cr.*

**PHS 426 Advanced Theoretical Physics (A).**
*Prerequisites: PHS 353, PHS 368, and PHS 411.*
Explores topics in Classical Mechanics, Electromagnetism, and Quantum Mechanics beyond those in prior classes. Three hours of lecture per week.
*3 Cr.*

**PHS 499 Independent Study in Physics (A).**
Arranged in consultation with the instructor-sponsor and in accordance with the procedures of the Office of Academic Advisement prior to registration.
*1-6 Cr.*