ENV 500 Plant Diversity (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the diversity of plants from an evolutionary perspective to taxonomic and botanical characteristics. Laboratory and field work surveys plant structures and principles of plant classifications and identification from the cellular to organismal level. Projects include plant collection and preservation, plant propagation, plant reproduction, and review and presentation of botanical literature. 4 Cr. Even Fall.
ENV 504 Stream Ecology (A). Prerequisites - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course; Multiple Course fees. In depth study of stream ecology. Topics include geomorphology, hydrology, stream chemistry and temperature, nutrient spiraling, trophic interactions, primary production, stream invertebrate ecology, stream vertebrate ecology, biodiversity in streams, stream habitat diversity, and stream management and restoration. 4 Cr. Even Spring.
ENV 506 Wildlife Ecology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of wildlife ecology. Lecture topics include population ecology, behavior, nutrition, disease, habitat management, predator-prey systems, economics and the human dimensions of wildlife management. Laboratories and field work include radio telemetry, census methods, aging white-tailed deer and computer modeling. 4 Cr. Even Fall.
ENV 507 Invasion Ecology (A). Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Topics include invasive species transport and spread, impacts of invasive species on communities and ecosystems, traits of invasive species, and management strategies for invasions. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.
ENV 513 Topics in Plant Biology (A). Prerequisites - ENV 400 or 405 or 500 or 505. In-depth discussion of recent scientific literature and experimental data in plant biology, ecology, and systematics. Students critically analyze current scientific literature and write a research paper. 3 Cr.
ENV 515 Entomology (A). Prerequisite - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Introduction to the study of insects, the most diverse group of organisms on the planet. Topics include biology, ecology, morphology, systematics, pest management, taxa of medical importance, and other subjects. Laboratory and field activities will focus on collection and identification of major insect orders and families. An insect collection is required at the end of the semester. 4 Cr.
ENV 519 Principles of Limnology (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisites - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course; Introduces students to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of lakes and streams. Lecture topics include top-down: bottom-up control of food webs, eutrophication, nutrient cycling, acid precipitation effects on lakes, paleolimnology, etc. Recommended for students interested in oceanography and marine biology. Laboratory and field methods covered include sampling and identification of selected aquatic organisms, chemical analysis of water, and operation of physical and chemical sampling gear. Includes field exercises on lakes and streams. 4 Cr. Fall.
ENV 524 Movement and Migration Ecology (A). Prerequisite Env 303. Introduction to movement and migration ecology across multiple taxonomic groups. Lecture topics will include an introduction to the field (e.g. definitions, patterns of movement, methods of study), a review of migratory life history evolution, examinations of the proximate and organismal controls of migration, navigation and orientation, and explorations of human interactions with migratory organisms and consequences for health, economics, and conservation. Graduate students will be required to demonstrate greater proficiency on exams and synthesis paper, undertake additional readings, and lead a class discussion on one peer-reviewed journal article. 3 Cr.
ENV 527 Animal Behavior (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include methods for the observation and quantification of behavior, natural selection and evolution of behavior, behavioral genetics, neural and physiological mechanisms of behavior, development of behavior, communication, migration and orientation, foraging behavior, social behavior, sexual reproduction, parental investment, and mating systems. Reading and discussion of primary literature. 3 Cr. Odd Fall.
ENV 530 Ornithology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of birds. Explores their form, function, ecology and evolution. Topics includes anatomy, physiology, origins and biophysics of flight, migration and annual cycle, mating systems, and population and community ecology of birds. Includes lab and field study of anatomy and flight, identification techniques, census methods, and trapping and banding. 4 Cr. Even Spring.
ENV 535 Northern Wetlands (A). Prerequisites - one general biology and one 400-level ecology course, & ENV 446 or 546. In-depth study of wetlands of the northern United States - peatlands and Great Lakes coastal marshes. Wetland development will be addressed starting with underlying geology and hydrology, then proceeding to biogeochemistry and development of plant communities and faunal habitats. Human impacts on these wetland types will be assessed, along with potential means for preventing degradation and restoring wetland functions. 3 Cr. Even Spring.
ENV 537 Biostatistics (B). Graduate introduction to univariate statistical analyses. Topics include descriptive statistics, hypothesis formation, test selection, calculation, and interpretation (including t-tests, regression, ANOVA, and non parametric alternatives) Consideration is given to appropriate evaluation of statistical application, interpretation, and presentation. *elective 3 Cr. Fall.
ENV 538 Ecological Data Analysis in R (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course; ENV 438 or 614. Topics include an introduction to the R language, writing simple functions, creating graphs, and analyzing ecological data using descriptive, univariate, and multivariate techniques. 3 Cr.
ENV 539 Conservation Biology (A). Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of conservation biology. Examines current theories and data from evolutionary biology, ecology and genetics as they relate to the conservation of biological diversity. Topics include causes of extinction, habitat loss and fragmentation, design of nature reserves, landscape ecology, application of basic principles of population biology to species conservation, and restoration ecology. 3 Cr. Spring.
ENV 540 Herpetology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of reptiles and amphibians. Explores their form, function, ecology and evolution. Topics include anatomy, physiology, mating systems, population and community ecology of reptiles and amphibians, and their conservation biology. Includes lab and field study of identification techniques, capture and census methods. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.
ENV 544 Plant and Ecosystem Ecology (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Introduction to the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world and the stresses they face due to global environmental change such as rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, global warming, declining biodiversity, invasive species and elevated nitrogen deposition. Systems will be compared and contrasted with respect to their major characteristics, including vegetation, energy flow, and nutrient cycling and inputs. 3 Cr. Odd Spring.
ENV 546 Wetland Ecology (A). $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of wetland science, including wetland types, functions and values, hydrology, biogeochemistry, development and succession, and plant and animal communities. The course is directed toward practical application of knowledge gained and concludes with wetland management and restoration and addressing wetland management problems. 4 Cr. Fall.
ENV 547 Wetland Delineation (A). Prerequisite - ENV 546 or 446. Introduction to technical criteria, field indicators, and accepted methods for identifying and delineating wetlands. Topics include the history of wetland regulation, hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation. Laboratory and field activities will focus on identification of hydrologic indicators, soils, and plant communities to determine wetland boundaries, as well as the understanding and use of the Army Corps of Engineers 1987 Wetland Delineation Manual. 3 Cr.
ENV 548 Restoration Ecology (A). Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth approach to restoration of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic ecosystems to be addressed by focusing on regulatory constraints, site characterization/ evaluation, conceiving and designing restoration projects that fit within the surrounding landscape, monitoring requirements, control of invasives, and adaptive management. Students working in groups will develop conceptual restoration projects of their own choosing in terrestrial, wetland, or aquatic ecosystems. Case studies will be assigned for further analysis of restoration options. 3 Cr. Even Fall.
ENV 552 Environmental Laws and Regulations (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth discussion of key federal and state environmental laws, how branches of government interact to enforce environmental laws and regulations, and the roles scientists and lawyers play in resolving environmental issues. 3 Cr. Fall.
ENV 559 Mammalogy (A). $40 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of mammals. Explores their form, function, ecology and evolution. Topics include origins, anatomy, physiology, diet and feeding strategies, population and community ecology, and social systems. Laboratory and field activities emphasize mammalian classification, habitat selection and population biology. 4 Cr. Odd Fall.
ENV 562 Aquatic Toxicology. $50 Course fee required: Prerequisite: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course; one 200-level chemistry course. In-depth study of toxicity testing equipment, procedures and organisms. Students design toxicity tests and culture test organisms. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.
ENV 564 Aquaculture (A). $40 Course fee required: Prerequisite: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the principles and practices of aquaculture. Topics include history of aquaculture and its future outlook; types and components of culture systems; water quality; nutrition; reproduction and selective breeding; aquatic animal health; culture of major species; environmental concerns associated with aquacultural operations; regulations pertaining to aquaculture practices; and aquaculture marketing. 3 Cr. Even Fall.
ENV 566 Great Lakes Issues (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the major environmental issues facing the Great Lakes. Topics include an overview of the physical, chemical and biological components of the Great Lakes ecosystem, toxic substances and areas of concern, invasive species, nearshore health and nonpoint source pollution, habitat and wildlife destruction and degradation, alteration of natural lake levels, and action plans to monitor, assess and protect the overall health of the Great Lakes ecosystem (GLRI, LaMPs). 3 Cr. Odd Spring.
ENV 577 Field Biology. $40 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. Explores flora and fauna of various habitats in Western New York. Topics include structure and function of communities, species identification, qualitative and quantitative assessment of communities and ecosystems, and general conservation theory and practice. 4 Cr.
ENV 583 Aquatic Invertebrates. $50 Course fee required: Prerequisites: One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of aquatic invertebrates and their importance in stream and lake ecosystems. Topics include invertebrate biology and ecology, classification and identification (insects, crustaceans, mites, annelids, mollusks, etc.), use of dichotomous keys and sampling equipment, and preparation techniques. Prepares students to predict habitat or water quality conditions based on the invertebrate fauna present. 4 Cr. Odd Spring.
ENV 584 Fisheries Science and Management (A). Prerequisite ENV 303. Introduction to fish ecology and fisheries science and management. Lecture topics include ecology (e.g. environmental constraints, bioenergetics, competition, predation, biodiversity), population dynamics (e.g., mortality, growth, recruitment), and management (e.g., history, regulations, habitat and population manipulations, stocking, and aquatic systems). Laboratory will focus on practical experience required by fishery scientists; collection methods, fish identification, quantitative measures (e.g., length-mass relationships), age and growth, mark-recapture. Graduate students will be required to demonstrate greater proficiency on homework, exams, laboratory reports, and laboratory practical, undertake additional readings, and develop/present a research proposal relevant to Fisheries Science and Management. 4 Cr.
ENV 586 (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisites - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course. In-depth study of the biology of fishes. Topics include fish diversity, evolution, anatomy, movement, osmoregulation, growth, reproduction, sensory systems. Weekly laboratories focus on practical experience with techniques used by fishery scientists: collection methods, anatomy and physiology, age and growth, quantitative measures and fish identification using taxonomic keys. 4 Cr. Even Spring.
ENV 614 Experimental Design and Data Interpretation (A). Prerequisite - One general biology and one 400-level ecology course; MTH122 or higher. In-depth study of experimental design, hypothesis formulation and testing, data manipulation and analysis, and interpretation of biological data. Topics include descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis, and parametric and non-parametric two-and multi-sample tests using analysis of variance, regression and other techniques. 3 Cr. Fall.
ENV 616 Multivariate Statistics (A). Prerequisite: ENV 614. Provide students with a working knowledge of the basic concepts underlying the most important multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis, factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and multivariate regression analysis. More specifically, the course will help students to identify the appropriate multivariate method with respect to research questions and data sets; to compute multivariate statistical analysis using standard statistical software, interpret and present results; and provide hands-on practice with multivariate techniques that are employed in preparations of Theses, dissertations and research papers. 3 Cr. Even Spring.
ENV 621 Water Chemistry (A). $20 Course fee required: Prerequisite: CHM 206. In-depth study of the theory and operation of analytical environmental chemistry instruments. Hands-on activities include flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), gas chromatography by micro-ECD, and autoanalyser techniques for nutrients. Extraction techniques for tissue (soxhletic) and water (C-18 empore filters) analysis are covered. Each student develops a water quality profile for a body of water. 4 Cr. Even Spring.
ENV 692 Graduate Intership (A). Designed for the student who wishes to gain experience working with an environmental organization in the public or private sector (e.g. industry, government, environmental organizations). Can be taken only once for credit. 1-3 Cr. By Arrangement.
ENV 695 Topics in Environmental Science (A). Designed for the student who wishes to gain experience in a special field of study. Details reflect student demand, needs, topics of interest, and instructor availability. 1-3 Cr. By Arrangement.
ENV 699 Independent Study in Environmental Science (A). Designed individually through consultation between student and instructor to suit the student's needs and interests and the special competence of the instructor. Additional requirements may be imposed by the department. 1-6 Cr. By Arrangement.
ENV 704 Research Thesis (A). Individual investigation of an original research problem to be submitted in a format acceptable to satisfy the requirements for the master's degree as determined by department rules and regulations. 1-6 Cr. Every Semester.
ENV 705 Graduate Research Seminar (A). The student takes two semester-long 1 credit seminars during the first year of the graduate program. Fall: Steps in the program, designing a thesis research project and critical review of scientific papers, Spring: scientific writing and critical review of scientific papers. 1-2 Cr. Every Semester.